Answer: The correct answer is reducing, controlling, and eliminating. Explanation: Industrial safety management is the branch that is concerned with reducing, controlling, and eliminating the hazards from the industries. This branch is quite important in all industries because maintaining the safety of people working there is the foremost priority.
- 0.1 What are the three types of industrial safety?
- 1 What is industrial safety management?
- 1.1 Why management is very important in industrial safety?
- 1.2 How many processes are included in industrial safety management?
- 1.3 What are 5 management functions?
- 1.4 What are the 4 types of industrial hazards?
What are the three types of industrial safety?
Industrial safety is seen universally as a necessity, above all because a safe workplace results in a comfortable, motivating climate. The current playing field in the realm of safety is made up of both increasingly stringent laws and regulations and the need for increased production capacity and for faster production speeds.
This leads workers to operate machinery faster and at greater risk. For example, with regard to machinery safety, both equipment manufacturers and equipment operators are placing great emphasis on engineering and on the application of international standards. On the whole, the efficacy of a safety system is not based solely on technical and regulatory aspects, but also on an in-depth functional analysis of the organization, of production processes, and of the human factor.
In the past, machinery safety was largely considered a cost. Today, safety technologies may be seen as an investment in business productivity. Products such as safety switches and relays have become fairly common. With the adoption of integrated technologies and approaches to safety, PLCs and safety mechanisms, too, have enjoyed widespread use while having a limited impact on system engineering and planning.
The overall landscape of instrumentation components and programs features solutions that are able to control everything concerning the potential risks inherent in the systems and machinery in both production and transformation processes. In sensors, for example, fire and smoke detectors allow for automated intervention in order to eliminate the causes of fire and combustion, while detectors for gases and other airborne compounds protect the workspace around the equipment.
Safety PLCs are able to inhibit improper movements and prevent the transit of unauthorized personnel through hazardous areas. Generally speaking, the use of accurate, reliable devices and instrumentation is a priority in order to reduce the levels of risk.
- Functional, Electrical, Intrinsic: the 3 domains of safety Thinking of safety in generic terms can be ambiguous, especially in relation to the global analysis of the causes of accidents and related preventive measures.
- As such, it can be helpful to summarize the three recognized types of industrial safety and point to the main safety laws and regulations, even though it will be impossible to provide an exhaustive picture of such a vast landscape.
The first concept in safety is functional safety, This type of safety depends on the proper functioning of a system or machine in response to its initial electrical, electronic and programmable parameters. The main standards that govern functional safety are ISO 13849 (Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems), IEC 62061 (Safety of machinery – Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems), IEC 61508 (Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-related Systems), and IEC 61511 (Functional safety – Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector).
It is important to note that the standard ISO 13849-1 requires that, in order to assess the performance of a safety-control system, the probability of dangerous failures per hour (PFH d) is to be calculated. This indicator is calculated based on the random failure rate of all components used in a system.
ISO 13849 is particularly important for PLCs in that it describes the safety functions and general requirements for the design and protection of control systems. In order to design automated systems that are totally safe for production and personnel, the reference standards are the Safety Integrity Level (SIL, i.e.
IEC 62061) and Good Automated Manufacturing Practice (GAMP). Also of note is the standard ANSI/ISA-99, developed in line with existing international standards and which defines the safety levels, on a scale from 0 to 4, of the various equipment used in production processes and in operations. The second type of safety that is of strategic importance in industry is electrical safety.
Electrical safety is achieved by designing and constructing electrical machinery so as to avoid any direct contact with electrical cables or other electrically conductive parts. Manufacturers must also seek to avoid hazards caused by indirect contact with a ground or other conductor that happens to be under tension.
The main families of standards in the field of electrical safety are EN 60204 (Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines), EN 60947-5 (Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear), and NFPA 79 (Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery) for the US market. Within the scope of these standards, the prevailing Machinery Directive bases the assessment, elimination, or reduction of risk as a principle of integrating safety in the design and construction of machinery and references ISO 12100 (Safety of machinery – General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction).
Finally, intrinsic safety, based on the ATEX directives 2014/34/EU and 1999/92/EC, is also to be taken into account. Intrinsic safety is the technical principle of preventing the risk of fire or explosion caused by electrical devices and electronic instrumentation.
At the level of power and circuitry, this safety is provided by galvanic isolation and Zener barriers, In order to create protected workspaces, photoelectric barriers, i.e. electro-sensitive devices that also ensure high levels of machinery and system productivity, are used. To choose the right electrical device to be used, we need to know which group of explosive substances the flammable compounds that may be present belong to.
For all types of fire protection, the electrical devices to be installed in an area at risk of explosion must be divided into temperature classes from T1 to T6. The device manufacturer must be able to achieve the highest safety levels for each individual device by way of specific fire-protection methods.
What does industrial safety include?
What is Industrial Safety? – Definition from Safeopedia As the name suggests, industrial safety refers to the safety management practices that apply to the industrial sector. Those processes aim to protect industrial workers, machinery, facilities, structures, and the environment.
General safety (issues and concerns that are common across all industries) Site-specific safety issuesProcess and production safetyMaterial safetyFire safetyElectrical safety Building and structural safety (including temporary installations)Environmental safety
What are the functions of safety management?
Reduce Risks in Your Workplace with Safety Management Training Courses – Safety management systems, or SMS, are crucial in ensuring the safety of your workforce and reducing the risk of accidents and hazards. It can be thought of as a marriage of risk analysis and quality assurance principles.
- As with other management functions, this entails planning, organizing, and deploying, with your organizational structure in mind.
- The key processes of a safety management system are hazard identification, occurrence reporting, risk management, performance measurement, and quality assurance.
- Crafting policies and procedures in your organization that will be implemented also plays an essential role in the direction of your program.
With a safety management system in place, you can guide your workers on how to carry out their tasks safely and properly and make them more alert in recognizing potential hazards on the site. You can also ensure that they are up to date with the protocols required by the management and the law.
- We’ve listed our recommended site safety management training courses (such as Accident Investigation and Safety Management Systems ) that will train your workers to be proactive in creating a safe work site.
- Training courses such as these can guide them on how to carry out their tasks safely and reduce occurrences brought about by occupational hazards.
In line with this, implementing a records management system can further support your safety efforts by organizing your business’s safety protocols, managing your documentation in a way that is easy to access and understand, and safekeeping the digital archives of your team’s current and previous safety training.
What is the concept of safety management?
Description – Safety management is commonly understood as applying a set of principles, framework, processes and measures to prevent accidents, injuries and other adverse consequences that may be caused by using a service or a product. It is that function which exists to assist managers in better discharging their responsibilities for operational system design and implementation through either the prediction of system’s deficiencies before errors occur or the identification and correction of system’s deficiencies by professional analysis of safety occurrences.
What is industrial safety management?
What is Industrial Safety Management? Industrial safety management is how you create and maintain a work environment that is both safe and efficient. You use it to minimize risks, keeping both the assets and people in the facility safe. Without good safety management, you run risks of unscheduled downtime and accidents.
Why management is very important in industrial safety?
Provide training and resources – Management should ensure that employees have the necessary training and resources to understand and follow safety protocols. This could include safety manuals, training materials, and access to safety equipment. If resources are given throughout the workplace, then it’s more likely the team will be able to respond effectively to any health and safety needs.
How many processes are included in industrial safety management?
How to Implement Process Safety Management – Process Safety Management is complex and requires a multidimensional approach that blends technology and management solutions. Every Process Safety Management program should include 14 basic elements, according to OSHA. Here is a brief overview:
Process safety information: Staff should have access to basic information about the hazards of the chemicals and tools they are using on the job. Process hazard analysis: This helps organizations evaluate their processes and operations to identify potential hazards. Still, organizations can’t manage safety and hazards until they know what hazards are actually in their facilities. Operating procedures: Work should follow consistent, well-established safety protocol. Hot work permit: Work with fire or other sources of ignition requires a systematic process for authorization and oversight. Emergency preparedness and response: Organizations should have a response plan if something goes wrong. Mechanical integrity: Businesses are required to track and evaluate the evolving safety risks of equipment. Pre-startup safety review: Businesses are required to thoroughly assess new or modified facilities before hazardous substances are introduced into the workplace. Training management: Employees should be properly trained on all safety procedures and have access to ongoing refresher training. Management of change: When processes change, businesses should conduct a systematic review of how the changes will affect risk throughout their facility. Incident investigation: When incidents and near-misses occur, businesses need a systematic process to record, track, investigate, report and analyze what happened. Contractor safety management: The safety of contractors and subcontractors should be covered by process safety management systems. Compliance audits: Organizations should conduct regular internal audits to ensure procedures and processes are compliant. Employee involvement: Employees should be able to access, acknowledge and sign-off on policy documents. Trade secrets: Employees must be provided thorough documentation of materials and processes, even those that are trade secrets, to ensure health and safety.
It is worth noting that PSM focuses on events that have perhaps occurred very infrequently in the past. Perhaps, they might never have occurred at all. But, if they do occur, they are often catastrophic. While it can be complex and expensive to understand these low-probability events, the outcomes that result when they do occur are orders of magnitude more severe.
What is risk in industrial safety?
What is Risk? – When we refer to risk in relation to occupational safety and health the most commonly used definition is ‘ risk is the likelihood that a person may be harmed or suffers adverse health effects if exposed to a hazard.’
What are 5 management functions?
At the most fundamental level, management is a discipline that consists of a set of five general functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. These five functions are part of a body of practices and theories on how to be a successful manager.
What is the role of industrial management?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Industrial management is a branch of engineering which facilitates creation of management system and integrates the diverse engineering processes. Industrial Management deals with industrial design, construction, management, and application of science and engineering principles to improve the entire industrial infrastructure and industrial processes.
Industrial Management focuses on the management of industrial processes. Industrial Managers can be said to be responsible for proper and the most efficient interaction of 4Ms: Man, Material, Machine and Method (which every organization needs). Industrial management also involves studying the performance of machines as well as people.
Specialists are employed to keep machines in good working condition and to ensure the quality of their production. The flow of materials through the plant is supervised to ensure that neither workers nor machines are idle. Constant inspection is made to keep output up to standard.
What is the purpose of industrial management?
Why is an industrial facility management so important? – First of all, industrial management is important because it allows efforts, skills, and resources to be directed towards productivity and efficiency. Industrial management is composed of a wide set of techniques that seek to minimize time, costs and losses, in order to increase the value of production,
What is an example of safety management?
Examples of safety management procedures for preventing otherwise preventable accidents include systems to ensure walkways are clear of obstructions at all times, properly guarding any machine parts that move or rotate, properly and adequately securing heavy or suspended machinery, and providing workers with adequate
What are the 4 types of industrial hazards?
Industrial hazards consist of four principle hazards. This is because industries employ many different processes involving a wide range of different raw materials, intermediates, waste products and final products. The hazards encountered are fire, explosion, toxic release and environmental damage.
- Fire: This is the most frequent of the hazards however the consequences are generally less.
- The effect of fire on people usually takes the form of skin burns and is usually dependant on the exposure time and the intensity of the heat.
- Fire can also produce toxic fumes like Acrolein, Carbon monoxide and Cyanides.
Physical structures can be damaged either by the intensity of the heat or combustion. It may also have an effect on essential services like power and instrumentation which can cause an escalation of the incident Explosion: Explosions are usually heard from far away as a ‘bang’.
This is the result of a shock wave. This overpressure can kill people but usually the indirect effects of collapsing buildings, flying glass and debris causes far more loss of life and severe injuries. There are different types of explosions which include gas explosions and dust explosions. Gas explosions occur when a flammable gas mixes with air and is exposed to an ignition source.
Dust explosions occur when flammable solids, especially metals, in the form of fine powders are intensively mixed with air and ignited. Toxic/Chemical release: Sudden releases of toxic vapours have the potential to cause death and severe injuries several miles from the release point.
They are carried by water and air. Their release into public sewage systems, rivers, canals and other water courses, either directly or through contaminated water used in fire fighting can result in serious threat to public. The number of casualties depends on the weather conditions, population density in the path of the cloud and the effectiveness of the emergency arrangements.
Environmental Damage: As well as having the potential for causing injury, loss of life and damage to property, the hazards of fire, explosion and toxic releases may pose a severe threat to the environment. Release of other substances, not directly toxic to humans can cause major pollution problems.
It is becoming increasingly recognized that damage to natural resources such as plant and animal life can have serious long term consequences.E.g. destruction of trees is increasing the effect of global warming and extinction of animals are severely disrupting food webs and causing an increase in pests.
List and discussion of Vulnerabilities · Improper location of Communities Communities like California and Couva are located too close to the Point Lisas industrial estate. If there is an explosion or chemical release, there communities will be severely affected potentially with many deaths and structural damage · Poor developmental planning in Point Lisas Industries in Point Lisas Industrial estate are located in such a way that it is easy for one failure to cause a domino effect e.g.
There is a methanol plant situated approximately 150m for a power generation plant. This power plant can produce a very easy source of ignition for any possible leak that may occur from the methanol plant. · Lack of knowledge Many persons in the country and primarily persons close to the industrial estate are unaware of the actual dangers they face on a daily basis.
Although it has been said may times, persons continue to ignore this because a disaster of catastrophic scale has not occurred before at the estate and companies boast of the low probability of such an incident. From a domestic point of view, person using everyday product like degreasers, disinfectants, bleach, lubricants (WD40, PR40), paints, thinners, acids (concrete cleaner) must be careful as most of these products affect the skin · Lack of mitigation measures From findings it has been proven that the mitigation measures put in place on the estate with respect to the ammonia plants are insufficient (Persad 2003).
There exists no specialized medical facility to deal with industrial cases. Even though there is the Couva Medical facility nearby, this is occupied by persons from that area. Fishing villages · Lack of evacuation expertise It was found that the emergency response system at Point Lisas was inadequate to handle industrial emergencies as there were a lack of specialized medical personnel as well as triage equipment and facilities.
(Persad, Deenesh 1996) · Transportation risks Many chemicals, including flammable hydrocarbons are transported on the roadway alongside other vehicles and pedestrians. This poses a risk of explosion, fire, blast fragments and other harmful injury to bystanders, if an incident was to happen.
Design and Pre-modification review : this involves proper layout, facilities and material selection. Research should be done try to substitute extremely toxic chemicals with safer ones. Less chemicals should be stored; a reduction in inventory will automatically mean less damage if an accident is to occur. Chemical Risk Assessment : Chemicals are assessed based on compatibility, flammability, toxicity, explosion hazards and storage. Process Safety Management : HAZOP studies, reliability assessment of process equipment, incorporating safety trips and interlocks, scrubbing system, etc. should be done before effecting major process changes. Management should try to develop a culture of safety in industrial organizations Safety Audits : Periodical assessment of safety procedures and practices, performance of safety systems and gadgets along with follow up measures should be carried out. Emergency Planning : A comprehensive risk analysis indicating the impact of consequences and specific written down and practiced emergency procedures along with suitable facilities should be done. This can be done by communities as well as national or regional corporation authorities Training : Proper training of employees and protective services should be done. Special times and escorts for dangerous vehicles Public Cooperation on the road : the public should cooperate with the police and any tankers and heavy duty vehicles to avoid accidents and allow for the shortest possible on road time for dangerous vehicles. Public awareness : Everyone should be aware of potential disasters and informed of protective and safety measures. MSDS sheets should be readily available to the public. Cautions must be placed to standout on dangerous household and car care products. Proper storage of hazardous Materials : All chemicals and hazardous materials should be kept at proper storage temperature and in locked cupboards away from children and animals. Also, if reactive substances are stored, it should be stored is a watertight container.
Farabi, Hamid. “Safety: A major objective in the Chemical and Petroleum Industry.” 1992. Mannan, Sam. Lee’s Loss Prevention. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, 2005. Persad, Deenesh. “A Synopsis of Disaster Management and Lessons Learnt on the Point Lisas Industrial Estate.” 2003. Persad, Deenesh. “Disaster Response Ammonia Spill.” 1996.
Further Reading :
Institute of Community Medicine U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
What is a Category 3 safety circuit?
Category 3 – Dual Channel Safety – This is the most typical safety circuit I see. Two channels allow for operation with a single fault, and diagnostics detect faults. Modern safety devices typically are set up to allow for easy implementation of this architecture. The highest safety levels can be achieved through this architecture with highly reliable components.