The Country Which Has Been Ranked First On Nuclear Safety Is
2023 Overall Scores

2023 Rank Country or Area Score
1 Australia 93
2 Switzerland 91
3 Canada 89
4 Germany 87

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What is Pakistan ranked in nuclear power in the world?

Pakistani Nuclear Forces Pakistan tested its first nuclear weapon in 1998, becoming the world’s 7th state to officially test a nuclear weapon. The exact yields of the weapons in the country’s current arsenal are not known, but general estimates are between 5-12 kilotons (kt) for most weapons, with some longer-range ballistic missiles possibly reaching 40 kt.

Who is the number 1 nuclear in the world?

Who has the most nuclear weapons? – Russia has the most confirmed nuclear weapons, with 5,997 nuclear warheads. The United States follows behind with 5,428 nuclear weapons, hosted in the US and 5 other nations: Turkey, Italy, Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

Who are the top 5 nuclear powers?

Contact : Kelsey Davenport, Director for Nonproliferation Policy, (202) 463-8270 x102; Daryl G. Kimball, Executive Director, (202) 463-8270 x107. At the dawn of the nuclear age, the United States hoped to maintain a monopoly on its new weapon, but the secrets and the technology for building the atomic bomb soon spread. The United States conducted its first nuclear test explosion in July 1945 and dropped two atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945.

  • Just four years later, the Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear test explosion.
  • The United Kingdom (1952), France (1960), and China (1964) followed.
  • Seeking to prevent the nuclear weapon ranks from expanding further, the United States and other like-minded countries negotiated the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1968 and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996.

India, Israel, and Pakistan never signed the NPT and possess nuclear arsenals. Iraq initiated a secret nuclear program under Saddam Hussein before the 1991 Persian Gulf War. North Korea announced its withdrawal from the NPT in January 2003 and has successfully tested advanced nuclear devices since that time. At the time the NPT was concluded, the nuclear stockpiles of both the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia numbered in the tens of thousands. Beginning in the 1970s, U.S. and Soviet/Russian leaders negotiated a series of bilateral arms control agreements and initiatives that limited, and later helped to reduce, the size of their nuclear arsenals.

  • Today, the United States deploys 1,419 and Russia deploys 1,549 strategic warheads on several hundred bombers and missiles, and are modernizing their nuclear delivery systems.
  • Warheads are counted using the provisions of the New START agreement, which was extended for 5 years in January 2021.
  • Russia suspended its participation in the treaty on Feb.21, 2023; in response, the United States instituted countermeasures limiting information sharing and inspections.

However, both the U.S. and Russia have committed to the treaty’s central limits on strategic force deployments until 2026. New START caps each country at 1,550 strategic deployed warheads and attributes one deployed warhead per deployed heavy bomber, no matter how many warheads each bomber carries.

  1. Warheads on deployed ICBMs and SLBMs are counted by the number of re-entry vehicles on the missile.
  2. Each re-entry vehicle can carry one warhead.
  3. The United States, Russia, and China also possess smaller numbers of non-strategic (or tactical) nuclear warheads, which are shorter-range, lower-yield weapons that are not subject to any treaty limits.

China, India, and Pakistan are all pursuing new ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and sea-based nuclear delivery systems. North Korea continues its nuclear pursuits in violation of its earlier denuclearization pledges. The world’s nuclear-armed states possess a combined total of about 12,512 nuclear warheads. Nuclear-Weapon States: The nuclear-weapon states (NWS) are the five states—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—officially recognized as possessing nuclear weapons by the NPT. The treaty recognizes these states’ nuclear arsenals, but under Article VI of the NPT, they are not supposed to build and maintain such weapons in perpetuity.

In 2000, the NWS committed themselves to an “unequivocal undertakingto accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals.” Because of the secretive nature with which most governments treat information about their nuclear arsenals, most of the figures below are best estimates of each nuclear-weapon state’s nuclear holdings, including both strategic warheads and shorter-range and lower-yield nuclear bombs, generally referred to as tactical nuclear weapons.


According to the September 2022 New START declaration, Russia deploys 1,549 strategic warheads on 540 strategic delivery systems (intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and heavy bombers). Due to Russia’s suspension of the New START Treaty in February 2022, it did not fulfill its treaty obligations to provide updated data. However, both Russia and the United States have committed to adhering by treaty limits until 2026. The U.S. intelligence community assesses that, as of December 2022, Russia also maintains an arsenal of 1000-2000 non-strategic nuclear warheads not limited by the New START Treaty. The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) estimates that Russia’s military stockpile consists of approximately 4,489 nuclear warheads, with 1,400 additional retired warheads awaiting dismantlement, as of May 2023.

United States

According to the March 2023 New START declaration, the United States deploys 1,419 strategic nuclear warheads on 662 strategic delivery systems (intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and heavy bombers). The United States also has an estimated 100 B-61 nuclear gravity bombs that are forward-deployed at six NATO bases in five European countries: Aviano and Ghedi in Italy; Büchel in Germany; Incirlik in Turkey; Kleine Brogel in Belgium; and Volkel in the Netherlands. On October 5, 2021, the U.S. State Department issued a declassification announcement indicating that the total number of U.S. “active” and “inactive” warheads is 3,750 as of September 2020. The stockpile figures do not include retired warheads and those awaiting dismantlement. FAS estimates the current military stockpile stands at 3708 warheads, with 1,536 retired warheads awaiting dismantlement, for a total of 5,244 warheads as of early 2023.


Independent researchers estimate that China may have up to 410 operational warheads available for deployment on 218 strategic delivery systems (intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and nuclear-capable bombers). Since the 1990s, China has continually modernized its nuclear forces, though the number and types of weapons fielded have expanded significantly in recent years. As of November 2022, the Defense Department estimates that China may have up to 1000 deliverable nuclear warheads by 2030.


France has a military stockpile of 290 operational warheads available for deployment on 98 strategic delivery systems, as of January 2022. This consists of 48 submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and 50 air-launched cruise missiles allocated for dual-capable land and carrier-based fighter aircraft. The French government has committed to a long-term modernization program for its nuclear forces but does not plan to increase the size of its nuclear stockpile.

United Kingdom

As of January 2022, the United Kingdom has a military stockpile of 225 warheads, of which an estimated 120 are operationally available for deployment on 48 submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and 105 are in storage. The United Kingdom possesses a total of four Vanguard-class Trident nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, which together form its exclusively sea-based nuclear deterrent.

Non-NPT Nuclear Weapons Possessors: India, Pakistan, and Israel never joined the NPT and are known to possess nuclear weapons. India first tested a nuclear explosive device in 1974. That test spurred Pakistan to ramp up work on its secret nuclear weapons program.

India and Pakistan both publicly demonstrated their nuclear weapon capabilities with a round of tit-for-tat nuclear tests in May 1998. Israel has not publicly conducted a nuclear test but is universally believed to possess nuclear arms. The following arsenal estimates are based on the amount of fissile material—highly enriched uranium and plutonium—that each of the states is estimated to have produced.

Fissile material is the key element for making nuclear weapons. India and Israel are believed to use plutonium in their weapons, while Pakistan is thought to use highly enriched uranium. India

Independent researchers estimate that India possesses up to 164 nuclear warheads,


FAS estimates that Pakistan possesses approximately 170 nuclear warheads,


Israel is estimated to have 90 nuclear warheads, with fissile material stockpiles of over 200. Israel does not admit nor deny having nuclear weapons, and states that it will not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons in the Middle East. Nevertheless, Israel is universally believed to possess nuclear arms stored in a partially disassembled state, although it is unclear exactly how many.

States that Declared Their Withdrawal from the NPT: North Korea joined the NPT as a non-nuclear weapon state but announced its withdrawal from the NPT in 2003 – a move that has not been legally recognized by the other NPT member states. North Korea has tested nuclear devices and nuclear-capable ballistic missiles.

North Korea is estimated to have approximately 45 to 55 warheads as of January 2022. There is a high degree of uncertainty surrounding North Korea’s fissile material stockpile and production. North Korea operates its 5-megawatt heavy-water graphite-moderated reactor to extract plutonium for its nuclear warheads and has done so on an intermittent basis since August 2013. It has also constructed and likely operated gas centrifuge plants to produce highly-enriched uranium.

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States of Immediate Proliferation Concern: Prior to the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Iran pursued a uranium enrichment program and other projects that provided it with the capability to produce weapons-grade fissile material and develop nuclear weapons, if it chose to do so.

  1. Since 2019, Iran has taken steps to breach limits put in place by the JCPOA and expanded its uranium enrichment program beyond its pre-JCPOA capacity.
  2. Tehran maintains that it does not intend to pursue nuclear weapons and that its actions are a response to the U.S.
  3. Withdrawal from the nuclear deal and reimposition of sanctions.

Iran continues to implement its comprehensive safeguards agreement with the IAEA, but suspended its additional protocol and certain JCPOA-specific measures in February 2021. Iran

Iran has accumulated enough uranium enriched to 60 percent to build a nuclear weapon, but the warhead would be large, unwieldy, and inconsistent with the weapons-related work Iran did prior to 2003. Iran has not accumulated or enriched uranium to weapons-grade levels (90 percent). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the institution charged with verifying that states are not illicitly building nuclear weapons, concluded in 2003 that Iran had undertaken covert nuclear activities to establish the capacity to indigenously produce fissile material. On July 2015, Iran and the “P5+1” (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) negotiated a long-term agreement to verify and significantly reduce Iran’s capacity to produce material for nuclear weapons. As part of this agreement, the IAEA and Iran concluded an investigation into Iran’s past nuclear weapons-related activities. The agency concluded that Iran had an organized program to pursue nuclear weapons prior to 2003. Some of these activities continued through 2009, but there were no indications of weaponization activities taking place after that date. On May 8, 2018, President Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the JCPOA. Iran began to violate the accord a year later. The United States and Iran have not yet reached an interim agreement to replace the JCPOA. Continued coverage of the JCPOA can be found in Arms Control Today and the P4+1 and Iran Nuclear Deal Alert,

States That Had Nuclear Weapons or Nuclear Weapons Programs at One Time:

Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited nuclear weapons following the Soviet Union’s 1991 collapse but returned them to Russia and joined the NPT as non-nuclear-weapon states. The apartheid South African government secretly developed a small number of nuclear weapons. South Africa joined the NPT in 1991 and dismantled its entire nuclear weapons program prior to its transition to a multi-racial democracy in 1994. Iraq had an active nuclear weapons program prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf War but was forced to verifiably dismantle it under the supervision of UN inspectors. The United States invaded Iraq in 2003 under the Bush administration’s rationale of preventing Iraq from acquiring weapons of mass destruction. However, Iraq’s nuclear program had remained dormant since its dismantlement in the 1990s and the country did not have ready stockpiles of chemical or biological weapons. Libya voluntarily renounced its secret nuclear weapons efforts in December 2003. Argentina, Brazil, South Korea, Sweden, Australia, and Taiwan also once pursued nuclear weapons programs.

Sources: Arms Control Association, Federation of American Scientists, International Panel on Fissile Materials, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of State, and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

Which country is best nuclear power?

1. USA – Nuclear Generation: 91.5GW In the number 1 top spot is, perhaps unsurprisingly, the USA. It boasts a total nuclear capacity of 91.5GW, which is generated by 93 reactors that are spread across 30 of the country’s 50 states. This capacity currently allows for the production of 20% of the country’s total electricity consumption, with the US – particularly since 2016 – relying more on coal and gas for power production.

Which country has the most powerful nuclear force?

Zimbabwe – Nuclear Weapon Possession help No The countries that have nuclear weapons are the United States, Russia, China, France, the United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea. Russia has the most nuclear weapons with an estimated 5,977 warheads in its nuclear arsenal, followed closely by the United States with an estimated 5,428 warheads.

Who has 90% of the world’s nuclear weapons?

Nine countries – China, North Korea, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States – possess a total of nearly 13,080 nuclear weapons. Russia and the United States possess roughly 90% of the world’s nuclear weapons, with over 5,500 weapons each. Learn more,

Who is the best nuclear bomb?

Analysis – Total destructive radius, superimposed on Paris with the red circle indicating the area of total destruction (radius 35 kilometres ), and the yellow circle the radius of the fireball (radius 3.5 kilometres ) The Tsar Bomba is the single most physically powerful device ever deployed on Earth, the most powerful nuclear bomb tested and the largest human-made explosion in history.

For comparison, the largest weapon ever produced by the US, the now-decommissioned B41, had a predicted maximum yield of 25 Mt (100 PJ). The largest nuclear device ever tested by the US ( Castle Bravo ) yielded 15 Mt (63 PJ) because of an unexpectedly-high involvement of lithium-7 in the fusion reaction; the preliminary prediction for the yield was from 4 to 6 Mt (17 to 25 PJ).

The largest weapons deployed by the Soviet Union were also around 25 Mt (100 PJ) (e.g., the SS-18 Mod.3 warhead ). The weight and size of the Tsar Bomba limited the range and speed of the specially-modified bomber carrying it. Delivery by an intercontinental ballistic missile would have required a much stronger missile (the Proton started its development as that delivery system).

  • It has been estimated that detonating the original 100 Mt (420 PJ) design would have increased the world’s total fission fallout since the invention of the atomic bomb by 25%.
  • It was decided that a full 100 Mt detonation would create a nuclear fallout that was unacceptable in terms of pollution from a single test, as well as a near-certainty that the release plane and crew would be destroyed before it could escape the blast radius.

The Tsar Bomba was the culmination of a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapons designed by the Soviet Union and the United States during the 1950s (e.g., the Mark 17 and B41 nuclear bombs).

Does Ukraine have nukes?

Ukraine does not have nuclear weapons in its arsenal. In 1991, Ukraine gained independence and inherited the nuclear weapons from the USSR that were located and produced on Ukrainian territory. At that time, Ukraine had the third-largest nuclear arsenal in the world.

Is Turkey a nuclear power?

Currently, Turkey has no operating commercial nuclear reactors.

What is the most powerful bomb in the world?

Tsar Bomba, (Russian: “King of Bombs”), byname of RDS-220, also called Big Ivan, Soviet thermonuclear bomb that was detonated in a test over Novaya Zemlya island in the Arctic Ocean on October 30, 1961. The largest nuclear weapon ever set off, it produced the most powerful human-made explosion ever recorded.

  1. The bomb was built in 1961 by a group of Soviet physicists that notably included Andrey Sakharov,
  2. At the time the Cold War between the U.S.S.R.
  3. And the United States had grown increasingly tense.
  4. Meant to be a show of Soviet strength, the three-stage bomb was unparalleled in power.
  5. It had a 100-megaton capacity, though the resulting fallout from such a blast was considered too dangerous for a test situation.

Thus, it was modified to yield 50 megatons, which was estimated to be about 3,800 times the strength of the U.S. bomb dropped on Hiroshima during World War II, In addition, the fusion process of the Soviet device was altered, dramatically lessening the fallout.

The resulting weapon weighed 27 tons, with a length of some 26 feet (8 metres) and a diameter of about 7 feet (2 metres). Although officially known as RDS-220, it acquired numerous nicknames, most notably Tsar Bomba in the West. A Tu-95V bomber was modified to carry the weapon, which was equipped with a special parachute that would slow its fall, allowing the plane to fly a safe distance from the blast.

The aircraft, piloted by Andrey Durnovtsev, took off from Kola Peninsula on October 30, 1961. It was joined by an observer plane. At approximately 11:32 am Moscow time, Tsar Bomba was dropped over the Mityushikha Bay test site on the deserted island of Novaya Zemlya.

  • It exploded about 2.5 miles (4 km) above the ground, producing a mushroom cloud more than 37 miles (60 km) high; the flash of the detonation was seen some 620 miles (1,000 km) away.
  • The resulting damage was equally massive.
  • Severny, an uninhabited village 34 miles (55 km) from ground zero, was leveled, and buildings more than 100 miles (160 km) away were reportedly damaged.

In addition, it was estimated that heat from the blast would have caused third-degree burns up to 62 miles (100 km) distant. Although a success, Tsar Bomba was never considered for operational use. Given its size, the device could not be deployed by a ballistic missile,

Instead, the bomb had to be transported by conventional aircraft, which could easily be intercepted before reaching its target. Thus, Tsar Bomba was viewed as a propaganda weapon. Following the 1961 blast, Sakharov became increasingly involved in efforts to limit nuclear tests to underground. Such a ban was signed by the United States, Britain, and the U.S.S.R.

in 1963, and numerous other countries later joined the treaty. Amy Tikkanen

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Does Germany have nukes?

Nuclear weapons in Germany – Germany is one of five NATO members to host US nuclear weapons on its territory as part of a nuclear-sharing agreement. The German air force is assigned approximately 15 B61 nuclear bombs, which are deployed at the Büchel air base. ICAN campaigners hold a protest at the Büchel air base in Germany in 2020, where US nuclear weapons are stationed. Photo: IPPNW

What country is safest from nuclear war?

Scientists Reveal Safest Countries To Survive Nuclear Apocalypse The study involved looking at abrupt sunlight-reducing situations. Scientists have recently revealed that Australia and New Zealand are best placed to survive a nuclear apocalypse and help reboot collapsed human civilisation. The study, published in the, has found that there are just a few island nations that could continue to produce enough food to feed their population after an “abrupt sunlight-reducing catastrophe” such as a nuclear war, super volcano or asteroid strike.

These countries include not just Australia and New Zealand, but also Iceland, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. There would “likely be pockets of survivors around the planet in even the most severe” scenario, the researchers wrote in the study. They compared 38 island countries on 13 factors which they said would predict which ones stood the best chance of surviving in a post-apocalyptic world.

The authors of the study found that Australia and New Zealand – both robust agricultural producers and tucked away from the likely sites of northern hemisphere nuclear fallout – topped the tables, with Australia performing best overall. “Australia’s food supply buffer is gigantic, with the potential to feed many tens of millions of extra people” the study read.

The researchers noted that Australia’s relatively good infrastructure, vast energy surplus, high health security and defence budget all aided in pushing it to the top of the table. Also Read | However, they also said that Australia does have one major factor working against it – its relatively close military ties with the United Kingdom and the United States make it more likely to become a target in a nuclear war.

In this area, New Zealand displayed some advantages because of its longstanding nuclear-free status, the researchers wrote. “We have this super efficient food export economy that could feed New Zealanders multiple times over just from exports,” said one of the study’s authors, Professor Nick Wilson from the University of Otago, Wellington.

  1. Mr Wilson also added that even in the worst-case scenario – a 61 percent reduction in crops during a prolonged nuclear winter (something which scientists believe will happen following large-scale atomic warfare) – New Zealanders would still have enough to eat.
  2. Other island countries would be able to produce enough food in such a crisis, however, the likely collapse of industry and social cohesion put their resilience in doubt, the researchers wrote.

The study also predicted that in an event of a nuclear apocalypse, China, Russia and the US could see food production fall up to 97 percent under nuclear winter models and would be forced to rely on new food production technologies. Exclusive: How 2,500 People Were Rescued From Haryana Temple Amid Violence : Scientists Reveal Safest Countries To Survive Nuclear Apocalypse

Which country has the best weapons?

Who is more powerful Russia or USA? – The US dominates the air with far more bases, fighter jets and bombers than Russia but Russia is superior on the ground with more tanks, artillery and land vehicles. At sea, the countries are more evenly matched, but here the US has the edge with more destroyers, submarines and aircraft carriers.

What is the biggest nuclear bomb today?

Filling Fission: 100% oralloy Fusion: Lithium-6 deuteride Blast yield Y1: 9 megatons Y2: Unknown

The Mk/B53 was a high-yield bunker buster thermonuclear weapon developed by the United States during the Cold War, Deployed on Strategic Air Command bombers, the B53, with a yield of 9 megatons, was the most powerful weapon in the U.S. nuclear arsenal after the last B41 nuclear bombs were retired in 1976.

The B53 was the basis of the W-53 warhead carried by the Titan II Missile, which was decommissioned in 1987. Although not in active service for many years before 2010, fifty B53s were retained during that time as part of the “hedge” portion of the Enduring Stockpile until its complete dismantling in 2011.

The last B53 was disassembled on 25 October 2011, a year ahead of schedule. With its retirement, the largest bomb currently in service in the U.S. nuclear arsenal is the B83, with a maximum yield of 1.2 megatons. The B53 was replaced in the bunker-busting role by the B61 Mod 11,

Which is more powerful nuclear bomb or atomic bomb?

What Is a Thermonuclear Bomb? – In contrast to the earlier atomic bombs, thermonuclear bombs (often called hydrogen bombs) rely on fusion instead of fission, This process is closer to Doc Ock than Doc Opp. Instead of splitting heavy atoms into lighter ones, fusion works by mushing two light elements into a heavier one.

They are commonly called hydrogen bombs because they use the hydrogen isotopes deuterium or tritium, the same stuff used in fusion reactors, to fuel them. RELATED: Scientists Have Achieved the First Ever Energy-Positive Fusion Reaction! So What Does That Mean? The explosive power of a thermonuclear bomb can be hundreds or thousands of times more powerful than atomic bombs.

While the force of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were measured in kilotons (one thousand tons) of TNT, the force of thermonuclear bombs is measured in megatons (a million tons). While they are a different class of nuclear weapon, thermonuclear bombs often have smaller atomic bombs inside of them.

  1. That’s because the fusion reaction they need to achieve requires incredible amounts of heat and pressure.
  2. Similar in construction to the Fat Man atomic bomb, thermonuclear bombs begin with the fission of plutonium facilitated by a sphere of conventional explosives.
  3. When the explosives detonate inward, they compress the plutonium causing fission.

That reaction further compresses the core of the bomb where hydrogen fuel made of tritium and deuterium is housed. Once enough heat and pressure is achieved in the core, hydrogen atoms begin to fuse into helium, just like in the core of the Sun, releasing neutrons, gamma, and X-rays.

Is Pakistan stronger than India in nuclear power?

Here’s everything you want to know about India, Pakistan’s nuclear arsenals

  • India’s defence ministry on Friday said a missile had been accidentally fired into neighbouring Pakistan after a “technical malfunction”, putting the spotlight once again on the nuclear arsenals of the South Asian arch rivals.
  • Both countries have pledged no first use of a nuclear weapon, but the accident immediately raised questions about the safety mechanisms in their systems.
  • Below is a look at their nuclear capabilities:
  • Both countries possess nuclear arsenals of comparable size.
  • Pakistan holds about 100-120 nuclear weapons, which can be delivered by aircraft and land-based missiles, while India’s nuclear arsenal is around 90-110 nuclear weapons, according to estimates by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  • Of the world’s nine nuclear-armed countries, India and Pakistan are also among the handful that have been increasing their nuclear warhead stockpiles, according to the Federation of American Scientists (FAS).

Pakistan’s nuclear delivery systems include at least four short-range and two medium-range ballistic missiles, according to the U.S.-based Arms Control Association (ACA).

  1. Several more missiles, including an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) with a range of 7,000 kilometres, are under development.
  2. Also Read:
  3. India, which is also developing two intercontinental ballistic missiles, already has a intermediate-range ballistic missile that can deliver a single warhead over 3,000 km, according to the ACA.
  4. India’s other delivery systems include multiple nuclear-capable short and medium ballistic missiles, which are under the control of its Strategic Forces Command.
  5. Indian nuclear delivery systems also feature a land-attack cruise missile called BrahMos, which was jointly developed with Russia and has an estimated range of 300-500 km.
  6. Unlike Pakistan, however, India has a nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine that completes its “nuclear triad” – the ability to launch nuclear strikes by land, air and sea.
  7. Both countries have a range of aircraft available for potential nuclear payload delivery.
  9. India tested a nuclear explosive device for the first time in 1974, which then pushed Pakistan to speed up work on its own secret programme.
  10. Both countries, which publicly demonstrated their nuclear weapon capabilities in tit-for-tat tests in May 1998, haven’t signed on to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
  11. The NPT, which took effect in 1970, is aimed at halting the spread of nuclear weapons-making capability and is signed by around 190 countries.
  12. “Pakistan is expanding its nuclear arsenal faster than any other country and developing new delivery systems,” ACA said in a March 2022 briefing on Pakistan’s nuclear weapons.
  14. India is committed to a nuclear doctrine of “no first use”, meaning it has pledged not to strike first, but will maintain what it describes as a “credible minimum deterrence”, allowing the country to retaliate and cause massive damage.
  15. India has also said it won’t use a nuclear weapon against a non-nuclear weapon state, according to diplomatic statements.
  16. Pakistan has pledged “no first use” against a non-nuclear weapons state, but its policy on first use against countries that have nuclear weapons – particularly India – remains vague, according to the ACA.
  17. Also Read:

Published on: Mar 12, 2022, 8:37 PM IST Posted by: Vinay Rai, Mar 12, 2022, 8:32 PM IST : Here’s everything you want to know about India, Pakistan’s nuclear arsenals

Is Pakistan the nuclear weapon state in the world?

Nuclear program start date 20 January 1972
First nuclear weapon test 28 May 1998 ( Chagai-I )
First thermonuclear weapon test 28 May 1998 ( Chagai-I )
Last nuclear test 30 May 1998 ( Chagai-II )
Largest yield test 40 kt in 1998 ( PAEC claim)
Total tests 6 detonations
Peak stockpile 165 warheads (2021 estimate)
Current stockpile 165 warheads (2021 estimate)
Maximum missile range 2750 km ( Shaheen-III )
NPT party No
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Pakistan is one of nine states that possess nuclear weapons, Pakistan began developing nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the device ready by the end of 1976.

Since PAEC, which consisted of over twenty laboratories and projects under reactor physicist Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan, a metallurgist working on centrifuge enrichment for Urenco, joined the program at the behest of the Bhutto administration by the end of 1974.

As pointed out by Houston Wood, “The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material”; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear weapon by the end of 1984.

  • The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC.
  • The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto.

Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed Major General Ali Nawab as the ranking engineer on the program. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq ‘s Administration.

  1. Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971’s Bangladesh Liberation War,
  2. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to be known as “Multan meeting”.
  3. Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated the nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan’s academic scientists to build an atomic bomb in three years for national survival.

At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan.

  • This marked the beginning of Pakistan’s pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability.
  • Following India’s surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus.

Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India’s second nuclear test ( Operation Shakti ), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan, This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s.

  • The Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission reported that the five nuclear tests conducted on May 28 generated a seismic signal of 5.0 on the Richter scale, with a total yield of up to 40 KT (equivalent TNT). Dr.A.Q.
  • Han claimed that one device was a boosted fission device and that the other four were sub-kiloton nuclear devices.

The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan’s fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined.

Which is the 1 nuclear test of Pakistan?

Chagai-I – The Pakistan’s Chagai-I nuclear test series was a single nuclear test conducted in 1998.

Pakistan’s Chagai I series tests and detonations These five devices constitute a single salvo test under the definition of “test” in List of nuclear weapons tests,

Name Date time ( UT ) Local time zone Location Elevation + height Delivery, Purpose Device Yield Fallout References Notes
Chagai 1 – 1 28 May 1998 10:16:15.8 PKT (+5 hrs) Ras Koh, Pakistan 28°47′34″N 64°56′44″E  /  28.79273°N 64.94565°E 1,298 m (4,259 ft) + tunnel, 32 kt Boosted fission device. Notice debris from light rock band slumped downhill from shaking. No official word on what happened in the test.A.Q. Khan, well connected but considered unreliable, says 1 large and 4 small devices detonated.
Chagai 1 – 2 28 May 1998 10:16:15.8 PKT (+5 hrs) Ras Koh, Pakistan 28°47′34″N 64°56′44″E  /  28.79273°N 64.94565°E 1,298 m (4,259 ft) + tunnel, 1 kt Boosted fission device. Notice debris from light rock band slumped downhill from shaking.
Chagai 1 – 3 28 May 1998 10:16:15.8 PKT (+5 hrs) Ras Koh, Pakistan 28°47′34″N 64°56′44″E  /  28.79273°N 64.94565°E 1,298 m (4,259 ft) + tunnel, 1 kt Boosted fission device.
Chagai 1 – 4 28 May 1998 10:16:15.8 PKT (+5 hrs) Ras Koh, Pakistan 28°47′34″N 64°56′44″E  /  28.79273°N 64.94565°E 1,298 m (4,259 ft) + tunnel, 1 kt Boosted fission device.
Chagai 1 – 5 28 May 1998 10:16:15.8 PKT (+5 hrs) Ras Koh, Pakistan 28°47′34″N 64°56′44″E  /  28.79273°N 64.94565°E 1,298 m (4,259 ft) + tunnel, 1 kt Boosted fission device.


  • ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in “name1 – 1(with name2)”. If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  • ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day.
  • ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. “~” indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  • ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is “N/A”. In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John, No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while “0” means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  • ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  • ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  • ^ Designations for test items where known, “?” indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  • ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons, A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  • ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and “all” if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.
  • What is Pakistan’s nuclear capability?

    The history between India and Pakistan, both nuclear powers, is inextricably linked. The countries have fought a series of wars since gaining their independence from Great Britain in 1947, largely over the Kashmir region, to which both countries lay claim.

    India became a nuclear power in 1974, and Pakistan became a nuclear power in 1998. Neither country has used nuclear weapons in conflict, but many experts fear that the ongoing crisis could escalate beyond conventional weapons use. India has approximately 164 nuclear warheads, and has land-based, sea-based and air-launch nuclear capabilities.

    The state had declared a No First Use policy, which means they have vowed to never use nuclear weapons first in a conflict. However, as of August 2019, India said they are reconsidering this policy, Pakistan has approximately 170 warheads. This number exceeds the projection made by the U.S.

    Defense Intelligence Agency in 1999 that Pakistan would have 60-80 warheads by 2020. If the current growth trend continues, Pakistan’s arsenal could grow to 220 to 250 warheads by 2025. Pakistan keeps its nuclear warheads stored separately from its missiles and will only assemble one if it will be used.

    Unlike India, Pakistan has not declared a No First Use policy, and instead has opted to emphasize smaller battlefield or “tactical” nuclear weapons as a counter to India’s larger and superior conventional forces. Even a small nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan could kill 20 million people in a week.