Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) | Ministry of Labour & Employment|Government of India Directorate General of Mines Safety, DGMS in short, is the Regulatory Agency under the Ministry of labour and employment, Government of India in matters pertaining to occupational safety, health and welfare of persons employed in mines (Coal, Metalliferous and oil-mines).
The organization has its headquarters at Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and is headed by Director-General of Mines Safety. Under the Constitution of India, safety, welfare and health of workers employed in mines are the concern of the Central Government (Entry 55-Union List-Article 246). The objective is regulated by the Mines Act, 1952 and the Rules and Regulations framed there under.
These are administered by the Directorate-General of Mines Safety (DGMS), under the Union Ministry of Labour & Employment.
Who controls minerals in India?
The Legislative Framework of Mining Sector in India –
The entry at serial No.23 of List II (State List) to the Constitution of India mandates the state government to own the minerals located within their boundaries, The entry at serial No.54 of List I (Central List) mandates the central government to own the minerals within the exclusive economic zone of India (EEZ), In pursuance to this Mines & Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Act of 1957 was framed. International Seabed Authority (ISA) regulates mineral exploration and extraction. It is guided by the UN treaty and India being a party to the treaty has received an exclusive right to explore polymetallic nodules over 75000 sq. km in Central Indian Ocean Basin. The MMDR Amendment Act of 2015 introduces Mineral Concessions Grant through auctions to bring transparency and remove discretion; The District Mineral Foundation (DMF) to address the longtime grievance of the people affected by mining; and the National Mineral Exploration Trust (NMET) for incentivising regional and detailed exploration to fill the gaps in exploration in the country, and stringent measures to check illegal mining.
Who owns the mines in India?
Legal and constitutional framework – India is not a signatory to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, But, on national scale, there are legal and constitutional framework to manage the mineral sector:
- The policy level guidelines for mineral sector is given by the National Mineral Policy of 2008.
- Mining operations are regulated under the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act of 1957.
- The State Governments, as owners of minerals, grant mineral concessions and collect royalty, dead rent and fees as per the provisions of MMDR Act 1957. These revenues are held in the Consolidated Fund of State Government until the state legislature approves their use through budgetary processes.
- In a recent development, the Supreme Court has said that “Ownership of minerals should be vested with the owner of the land and not with the government.”
The subject of ‘mineral regulation and development’ occurs at S.No.23 of the State list in the VIIth schedule to the Constitution. However, the Constitution circumscribes this power, by giving Parliament the power under S.No.54 of the Central list in the VIIth schedule, to enact legislation, and to this extent, the States will be bound by the Central legislation.
- The Mines and Mineral (Development and Regulation) Act 1957 is the main Central legislation in force for the sector.
- The Act was enacted when the Industrial Policy Resolution 1957 was the guiding policy for the sector, and thus was aimed primarily at providing a mineral concession regime in the context of the metal making public sector undertakings.
After the liberalization in 1991, a separate National Mineral Policy was promulgated in 1993 which set out the role of the private sector in exploration and mining and the MMDR Act was amended several times to provide for a reasonable concession regime to attract the private sector investment including FDI, into exploration and mining in accordance with NMP 1993.
The Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957 (MMDR Act 1957 in short) was enacted so as to provide for the regulation of mines and development of minerals under the control of the Union. The Act has been amended in 1972, 1986, 1994 and 1999 in keeping with changes in the policy on mineral development.
The Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Amendment Act, 1999, inter-alia, provides for (a) introduction of a new concept of reconnaissance operations distinct from prospecting; (b) delegation of powers to the State Governments to grant mineral concessions for limestone; (c) granting of mineral concession in non-compact and non-contiguous areas; (d) liberalizing the maximum area limits for prospecting licences and mining leases; (e) empowering the State Governments to make rules to curb the illegal mining etc.
The Act was amended in the year 2015 with the intention of removing discretion and introducing more transparency in the grant of mineral concessions. The amendments now made to the MMDR Act, 1957 provide that mineral concessions will be granted only on the basis of bidding at an auction, for the prospecting stage or mining stage as the case may be.
New Mineral (Auction) Rules notified in 2015 for the auction procedures. The Minerals (Evidence of Mineral Contents) Rules, also notified at the same time specifies the technical requirements.
Which minerals is India the largest producer of in the world?
India is the largest producer and exporter of mica.
Who started mining in India?
Ministry of Coal, Government of India India has a long history of commercial coal mining covering nearly 220 years starting from 1774 by M/s Sumner and Heatly of East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of river Damodar. However, for about a century the growth of Indian coal mining remained sluggish for want of demand but the introduction of steam locomotives in 1853 gave a fillip to it.
Within a short span, production rose to an annual average of 1 million tonne (mt) and India could produce 6.12 mts. per year by 1900 and 18 mts per year by 1920. The production got a sudden boost from the First World War but went through a slump in the early thirties. The production reached a level of 29 mts.
by 1942 and 30 mts. by 1946. With the advent of Independence, the country embarked upon the 5-year development plans. At the beginning of the 1st Plan, annual production went upto 33 mts. During the 1st Plan period itself, the need for increasing coal production efficiently by systematic and scientific development of the coal industry was being felt.
- Setting up of the National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC), a Government of India Undertaking in 1956 with the collieries owned by the railways as its nucleus was the first major step towards planned development of Indian Coal Industry.
- Along with the Singareni Collieries Company Ltd.
- SCCL) which was already in operation since 1945 and which became a Government company under the control of Government of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, India thus had two Government coal companies in the fifties.
SCCL is now a joint undertaking of Government of Andhra Pradesh and Government of India sharing its equity in 51:49 ratio.