If you cannot drop to the ground, try to sit or remain seated so you are not knocked down. –
If you are in a wheelchair, lock your wheels. Remove any items that are not securely attached to the wheelchair. Protect your head and neck with a large book, a pillow, or your arms. The goal is to prevent injuries from falling down or from objects that might fall or be thrown at you. If you are able, seek shelter under a sturdy table or desk. Stay away from outer walls, windows, fireplaces, and hanging objects. If you are unable to move from a bed or chair, protect yourself from falling objects by covering up with blankets and pillows. If you are outside, go to an open area away from trees, telephone poles, and buildings, and stay there. For more resources for people with impaired mobility and other access and functional needs, visit the,
: Stay Safe During an Earthquake
- 1 What not to do after earthquake?
- 2 Why are earthquakes so important?
- 3 What are the steps in an earthquake drill?
What is the first aid of an earthquake?
Check for injuries –
Check your first aid kit or the front pages of your telephone book for detailed instructions on first aid measures. If a person is bleeding, put direct pressure on the wound. Use clean gauze or cloth, if available. If a person is not breathing, administer rescue breathing. If a person has no pulse, begin CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Cover injured persons with blankets or additional clothing to keep them warm. Get medical help for serious injuries. Carefully check children or others needing special assistance.
Can you hear an earthquake coming?
In the United States most reports of mysterious booms come from the Northeast and along the East Coast, but there have also been observations along the West Coast. Those on the East Coast have not been directly studied and explained, but we can deduce from observations and measurements in West Coast locations that at least some of the East Coast booms are associated with very small earthquakes.
What not to do after earthquake?
Stay calm. Help others if you are able.
Be prepared for aftershocks. Listen to the radio or television for information from authorities. Follow their instructions. Place telephone receivers back in their cradles; only make calls if requiring emergency services. Put on sturdy shoes and protective clothing to help prevent injury from debris, especially broken glass. Check your home for structural damage and other hazards. If you suspect your home is unsafe, do not re-enter. If you have to leave your home, take your emergency kit and other essential items with you. Post a message in clear view, indicating where you can be found. Do not waste food or water as supplies may be interrupted. Do not light matches or turn on light switches until you are sure there are no gas leaks or flammable liquids spilled. Use a flashlight to check utilities and do not shut them off unless damaged. Leaking gas will smell. If tap water is still available immediately after the earthquake, fill a bathtub and other containers in case the supply gets cut off. If there is no running water, remember that you may have water available in a hot water tank (make sure water is not hot before touching it) and toilet reservoir (not the bowl). Do not flush toilets if you suspect sewer lines are broken. Carefully clean up any spilled hazardous materials. Wear proper hand and eye protection. Check on your neighbours after looking after members of your own household. Organize rescue measures if people are trapped or call for emergency assistance if you cannot safely help them. If you have pets, try to find and comfort them. If you have to evacuate, take them to a pre-identified pet-friendly shelter. Place a HELP sign in your window if you need assistance. Beware of secondary effects. Although ground shaking is the major source of earthquake damage, secondary effects can also be very destructive. These include landslides, saturated sandy soils becoming soft and unstable, flooding of low-lying areas and tsunamis washing over coastlines.
What causes earthquakes?
An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. The tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but they get stuck at their edges due to friction. When the stress on the edge overcomes the friction, there is an earthquake that releases energy in waves that travel through the earth’s crust and cause the shaking that we feel.
- In California there are two plates – the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate.
- The Pacific Plate consists of most of the Pacific Ocean floor and the California Coast line.
- The North American Plate comprises most the North American Continent and parts of the Atlantic Ocean floor.
- The primary boundary between these two plates is the San Andreas Fault.
The San Andreas Fault is more than 650 miles long and extends to depths of at least 10 miles. Many other smaller faults like the Hayward (Northern California) and the San Jacinto (Southern California) branch from and join the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Pacific Plate grinds northwestward past the North American Plate at a rate of about two inches per year.
How long can you survive in an earthquake?
Political Cartoons – “Typically, it is rare to find survivors after the fifth to seventh days, and most search and rescue teams will consider stopping by then,” said Dr. Jarone Lee, an emergency and disaster medicine expert at Massachusetts General Hospital. “But, there are many stories of people surviving well past the seven-day mark.
- Unfortunately, these are usually rare and extraordinary cases.” People with traumatic injuries, including crush injuries and limb amputations, face the most critical survival window, said Dr.
- George Chiampas, an emergency medicine specialist at Northwestern University’s Feinberg medical school.
- If you don’t pull them out in one hour, in that golden hour, there’s really a very low chance of survival,” he said.
Those with other illnesses, whose health depends on medications, also face grim chances, Chiampas said. Age, physical and mental condition are all critical. “You see a lot of different scenarios where we’ve had some some really miraculous saves and people have survived under horrible conditions.,” said Dr.
Christopher Colwell, an emergency medicine specialists at the University of California, San Francisco. “They tend to be younger people and and have been fortunate enough to find either a pocket in the rubble or some way to access needed elements like air and water.” After the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami, a teenager and his 80-year-old grandmother were found alive after nine days trapped in their flattened home.
The year before, a 16-year-old Haitian girl was rescued from earthquake rubble in Port-Au-Prince after 15 days. Mental state can also affect survival. People trapped next to bodies, who have no contact with other survivors or rescuers, may give up hope, Chiampas noted.
- If you have someone who is alive, you’re leaning on each other to keep fighting,” he said.
- AP video journalist Angie Wang contributed to this story.
- Follow AP Medical Writer Lindsey Tanner at @LindseyTanner _ The Associated Press Health and Science Department receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Science and Educational Media Group.
The AP is solely responsible for all content. Copyright 2023 The Associated Press, All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
What materials can survive an earthquake?
Wood and steel have more give than stucco, unreinforced concrete, or masonry, and they are favored materials for building in fault zones.
Why are earthquakes so important?
Earthquakes, Tsunamis & Volcanoes « Ask a Real Expert « Ask an expert « previous question | all | next question » Q6: Earthquakes have always been part of the earth’s geology. What are the positive effects of earthquakes? Would mankind have evolved on earth without its restless tectonic activity? Submitted by Michael Chester A: Earthquakes are very useful to humans because they provide a picture of whats going on underground. This can make oil and gas extraction more efficient, and allows scientists to monitor the progress of water during geothermal energy extraction. They also tell you what is happening in the structure of the earth, for example, magma chambers, and allow scientists to monitor volcanoes and the threat of eruption.
Earthquakes can also tell us about the internal structure of the Earth. By measuring the time it takes the seismic waves to travel through the Earth we can map out the structure of the Earth down to the core. On a global scale, earthquakes are just a symptom of the movements of the plates going on all the time, and they occur because the material at the surface at the earth is changing due to convection within the Earths mantle mountains are being created, minerals from below are being brought up and new sea floors are being made.
Tectonic activity is essential to sustaining life on Earth. Matter is constantly being recycled between the atmosphere and the crust. We have continents because of tectonic activity. Mid ocean ridges support a huge amount of life, and may have been important in the origin of life, and the atmosphere is reliant on volcanic eruptions for its composition. ^ top
What are the steps of an earthquake?
What are the 5 stages of earthquake? The fives stags of an earthquake are elastic strain, dilatancy, influx of water, earthquake, and aftershocks. Elastic strain occurs as the rocks build up strain as plates move. Dilatancy occurs as rocks break and increase in size.
What is the difference between a 5 and 7 earthquake?
Richter Scale – Most Americans still associate the concept of earthquake magnitude with the Richter Scale, published by Charles Richter in 1935 (PDF link). Aiming to assess the strength of earthquakes in Southern California, Richter used measurements of seismic waves combined with their distance from the earthquake epicenter to create a magnitude rating system.
- The Richter Scale (more accurately referred to now as the “local magnitude” scale or ML ), like all other magnitude scales to follow, is logarithmic, meaning each unit up on the scale equals a 10-fold increase in amplitude –e.g.
- A 7.0 earthquake is 10 times stronger than a 6.0 earthquake, and 100 times stronger than a 5.0 earthquake.
However, the energy released by a seismic wave is 101.5 (or about 31.6x) the amount of its amplitude, meaning that a 7.0 quake releases 31.6 times more energy than a 6.0 quake, or 1,000 times more energy than a 5.0 quake.
What are the steps in an earthquake drill?
Drop, cover, and hold on during your earthquake drill. –
DROP down onto your hands and knees immediately. This position protects you from falling but still allows you to move if necessary. COVER your head and neck (and your entire body if possible) underneath a sturdy table or desk. If there is no shelter nearby, get down near an interior wall or next to low-lying furniture that won’t fall on you, and cover your head and neck with your arms and hands. Try to stay clear of windows or glass that could shatter or objects that could fall on you. HOLD ON to your shelter (or to your head and neck) until the shaking stops. Be prepared to move with your shelter if the shaking shifts it around.