How many types of safety do we have?
Industrial safety is seen universally as a necessity, above all because a safe workplace results in a comfortable, motivating climate. The current playing field in the realm of safety is made up of both increasingly stringent laws and regulations and the need for increased production capacity and for faster production speeds.
This leads workers to operate machinery faster and at greater risk. For example, with regard to machinery safety, both equipment manufacturers and equipment operators are placing great emphasis on engineering and on the application of international standards. On the whole, the efficacy of a safety system is not based solely on technical and regulatory aspects, but also on an in-depth functional analysis of the organization, of production processes, and of the human factor.
In the past, machinery safety was largely considered a cost. Today, safety technologies may be seen as an investment in business productivity. Products such as safety switches and relays have become fairly common. With the adoption of integrated technologies and approaches to safety, PLCs and safety mechanisms, too, have enjoyed widespread use while having a limited impact on system engineering and planning.
The overall landscape of instrumentation components and programs features solutions that are able to control everything concerning the potential risks inherent in the systems and machinery in both production and transformation processes. In sensors, for example, fire and smoke detectors allow for automated intervention in order to eliminate the causes of fire and combustion, while detectors for gases and other airborne compounds protect the workspace around the equipment.
Safety PLCs are able to inhibit improper movements and prevent the transit of unauthorized personnel through hazardous areas. Generally speaking, the use of accurate, reliable devices and instrumentation is a priority in order to reduce the levels of risk.
- Functional, Electrical, Intrinsic: the 3 domains of safety Thinking of safety in generic terms can be ambiguous, especially in relation to the global analysis of the causes of accidents and related preventive measures.
- As such, it can be helpful to summarize the three recognized types of industrial safety and point to the main safety laws and regulations, even though it will be impossible to provide an exhaustive picture of such a vast landscape.
The first concept in safety is functional safety, This type of safety depends on the proper functioning of a system or machine in response to its initial electrical, electronic and programmable parameters. The main standards that govern functional safety are ISO 13849 (Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems), IEC 62061 (Safety of machinery – Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems), IEC 61508 (Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-related Systems), and IEC 61511 (Functional safety – Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector).
It is important to note that the standard ISO 13849-1 requires that, in order to assess the performance of a safety-control system, the probability of dangerous failures per hour (PFH d) is to be calculated. This indicator is calculated based on the random failure rate of all components used in a system.
ISO 13849 is particularly important for PLCs in that it describes the safety functions and general requirements for the design and protection of control systems. In order to design automated systems that are totally safe for production and personnel, the reference standards are the Safety Integrity Level (SIL, i.e.
- IEC 62061) and Good Automated Manufacturing Practice (GAMP).
- Also of note is the standard ANSI/ISA-99, developed in line with existing international standards and which defines the safety levels, on a scale from 0 to 4, of the various equipment used in production processes and in operations.
- The second type of safety that is of strategic importance in industry is electrical safety.
Electrical safety is achieved by designing and constructing electrical machinery so as to avoid any direct contact with electrical cables or other electrically conductive parts. Manufacturers must also seek to avoid hazards caused by indirect contact with a ground or other conductor that happens to be under tension.
- The main families of standards in the field of electrical safety are EN 60204 (Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines), EN 60947-5 (Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear), and NFPA 79 (Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery) for the US market.
- Within the scope of these standards, the prevailing Machinery Directive bases the assessment, elimination, or reduction of risk as a principle of integrating safety in the design and construction of machinery and references ISO 12100 (Safety of machinery – General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction).
Finally, intrinsic safety, based on the ATEX directives 2014/34/EU and 1999/92/EC, is also to be taken into account. Intrinsic safety is the technical principle of preventing the risk of fire or explosion caused by electrical devices and electronic instrumentation.
At the level of power and circuitry, this safety is provided by galvanic isolation and Zener barriers, In order to create protected workspaces, photoelectric barriers, i.e. electro-sensitive devices that also ensure high levels of machinery and system productivity, are used. To choose the right electrical device to be used, we need to know which group of explosive substances the flammable compounds that may be present belong to.
For all types of fire protection, the electrical devices to be installed in an area at risk of explosion must be divided into temperature classes from T1 to T6. The device manufacturer must be able to achieve the highest safety levels for each individual device by way of specific fire-protection methods.
What is Level 4 risk assessment?
Level 4 Fire Risk Assessment Course | BRE Academy
Learning objectivesIs it right for me?Course content
This comprehensive five-day training course will equip you with the knowledge to complete fire risk assessments of all but the most complex buildings, as described in the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. After completing this training course, you will then compile a portfolio of your work which will be submitted for assessment and feedback over a period of a year.
Understand the fire risk assessment process Understand the duties of the relevant legislation Undertake fire risk assessments and compile comprehensive, relevant fire risk assessment reports Calculate occupancy levels and understand the requirements of means of escape and compartmentation Understand fire alarm system design, emergency lighting provision and firefighting equipment
5 days plus up to 12 months for portfolio completion The course is aimed at those who will have responsibility for conducting fire risk assessments including Fire Safety Managers, Facilities Managers, Risk Managers, Surveyors and Health and Safety practitioners.
- Also suitable for those involved in the compilation of fire emergency plans.
- After successfully completing this training course, you’ll have acquired the knowledge you need to start building your portfolio of practical evidence for submission towards the Level 4 Diploma in Fire Risk Assessment.
- Your evidence will comprise three fire risk assessments on certain building types, to be completed within twelve months.
This is a comprehensive five-day classroom course, followed by a 12 month period where you will compile a portfolio of your work for assessment. This will lead, after successful completion of the post class work, to a nationally and internationally recognised award.
Fire safety legislation and applicable codes of practice and regulation Fire dynamics, smoke movement and occupant behaviour Principles of fire safety Fire safety management and prevention Structural response to fire Containment and passive fire protection Communication: fire alarms Extinguishment, fire service access and suppression systems Escape and evacuation Professional and ethical conduct and recognising limitations Effective communication with the client Investigative and inspection techniques Provision of fire risk assessment guidance and advice Fire risk assessment methodology Collection of appropriate data to identify and evaluate fire risks Making well-reasoned recommendations for action across a range of situations
What does Level 4 stand for?
NQF stands for National Qualifications Framework. This system is used to determine which level of qualification or qualifications students have achieved. The higher your NQF Level, the Higher your Qualification. For example, a Matric Qualification is at NQF Level 4 whereas a Bachelor’s Degree Qualification is at NQF Level 7.
- Understanding basic languages
- Understanding basic Mathematical skills
- Knowing how to read
- Knowing how to write
The learning outcomes for a Bachelor’s Degree Qualification are based on:
- An advanced understanding of that particular field of study
- Using your prior knowledge as a base for the Bachelor’s Degree Course
You can find out what your NQF Level is by looking at this table:
|NQF Level 1||Grade 9 or GETC: ABET Level 4|
|NQF Level 2||Grade 10 or N (C) V Level 2|
|NQF Level 3||Grade 11 or N (C) V Level 3|
|NQF Level 4||Grade 12 or Matric Equivalent Certificates or N (C) V Level 4|
|NQF Level 5||Higher Certificates|
|NQF Level 6||Diploma or Advanced Certificates|
|NQF Level 7||Advanced Diplomas or Bachelor’s Degrees|
|NQF Level 8||Post Graduate Diplomas or Honours Degrees|
|NQF Level 9||Masters Degrees|
|NQF Level 10||Doctoral Degrees|
What is the level of safety?
The level of safety is defined by the combination of prevention, protection, facility exit routes, and other features enumerated within the individual chapters of NFPA 101: Code for Safety and Life from Fire in Buildings and Structures. From: Management of Medical Technology, 1992