What Are the Safety Devices of Lifting Machinery? – Henan Tosta Machinery Co., Ltd. EOT crane is a special type of equipment. Since its safety is very important, safety devices must be installed on the hoisting machinery. Different types of cranes should be installed with different types and performance of safety devices.

The more common safety devices are as follows: 1. Over-hoist limiter of EOT crane According to the regulations, the hoisting mechanism of the EOT crane must be equipped with an over-hoisting limiter. When the hook block is lifted 300mm away from the crane frame, the power supply of the motor can be automatically cut off and the motor will stop running.

In this way, the safe operation of the crane can be ensured, and accidents such as wire rope being pulled off and heavy objects falling due to over-hoisting and lifting can be avoided.2. The stroke limiter of the crane It is a safety device adopted to prevent a collision accident caused by the crane approaching the end of the track, or a collision accident of two cranes on the same track.

  • The travel limiter can ensure that when the distance between the end of the track is 200mm and the distance between the cranes is 500mm, the power supply is immediately cut off and the operation is stopped.3.
  • Automatic interlocking device of crane There are many bare wires passing through the bridge crane.

In order to prevent the maintenance personnel from getting electric shock, it is required to install an automatic interlocking device at the door of the warehouse leading from the cab to the frame (or bridge) to realize power failure during maintenance, and power on after maintenance to ensure the safety of maintenance operation.4.

The buffer of the crane A buffer is a safety device that absorbs energy when a crane collides with an object, and works after the crane’s brakes and end switches fail. When the crane is connected to the rail end column, ensure that the crane stops smoothly. Commonly used buffers on cranes include rubber buffers, spring buffers and hydraulic buffers.5.

Crane brake The brake on the lifting equipment can make the lifting equipment stop working at any time and keep the heavy objects at any height during the lifting, translation and rotation process. It can not only prevent accidents, but also meet the work requirements.

There are many types of brakes, such as spring-loaded brakes, safety cranks, etc. Because the function of the brake is very important for the crane, many accidents are often caused by the failure or faults of the brake. Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of lifting operations, the inspection and maintenance of brakes must be strengthened, and inspections are generally required once per shift.6.

The weight limiter of the crane Weight limiters are overload protection devices for cranes. According to its structure and working principle, it can be divided into two types: mechanical type and electronic type. During the lifting operation, when the lifting capacity exceeds 10% of the rated lifting capacity of the crane, the weight limiter will work to make the mechanism power off and stop working, thus playing the role of overload limit.7.

Torque limiter of crane For cranes with luffing booms (such as tower cranes, mobile cranes, etc.), in addition to considering the size of the load, the change of the distance from the load center of gravity to the crane caused by the boom luffing shall also be considered, that is, the lifting torque: The torque limiter is a safety device that integrates the two factors of the lifting capacity and the operating range of the crane to ensure that the lifting torque is always within the allowable range.

It can be divided into two types: mechanical and electronic.

What are safety devices fitted on a deck crane?

Deck machinery and systems of ships are continuously subjected to harsh weather and corrosive environment. Machinery such as cargo cranes and associated auxiliaries are important for commercial ship operations, and any problem with them can lead to extended port stay, damage to the property or even loss of life. A deck cargo crane mainly comprises of these sections and equipment: Base Structure of the crane: The base structure of the crane is an extra strengthened structure, on which, the pedestal of the crane is mounted. Fixed Pedestal: This structure equally distributes the stresses to the base structure and also incorporates the moving turrets via a slew ring connection to enable the rotational movement of the crane Moving Turret: Moving turret is where the operator’s cabin is situated, and the crane Jib is connected to it.

  1. As per the make and design, the turret can move 360 degrees to its centre of rotation.
  2. Related Reading: 12 Important Checks For Deck Lifting Equipment On Ships Jib Arm: The Jib arm is what carries the load.
  3. The arm can be hydraulically moved in four directions- Up, down, back and forward.
  4. The moving turret performs the rotational movement of the crane to transfer the load.

Hoist with wire: The hoist is hanged at the end of the Job arm with the use of steel wire ropes, which are connected to the winch drum for lifting or lowering weight for transfer. Related Reading: Understanding Lubrication Of Wire Ropes On Ships Hydraulic and electric equipment: Hydraulics and electrical machinery are an integral part of crane operation.

Hydraulic oil pressure results in the movement of jib and turret, and winches do the lifting of the load using hoist and wire. A small leak in the hydraulic line or a problem in the winch motor may stall the complete loading/unloading operation. Related Reading: Cargo Handling On Ships – 10 Tips That Can Save Your Life Safety Devices: One cannot say machinery is complete without any safety devices installed on it.

The deck cargo crane is provided with an emergency stop, overload protection, hydraulic oil filter and level alarms, brakes etc. as safety devices. The inspection and maintenance of the crane (including the base structure) are performed as per the maker’s instruction and also included in the Planned Maintenance System (PMS) of the ship. To efficiently handle and maintain the ship’s crane, seafarers must know various tasks and essential points associated with crane components as explained above. Some important tips are for efficient operation, and maintenance of cargo cranes on ships are:

In most bulk carrier ship, the crane provided on the ship’s deck is for both hook operation and grab operation. It is possible to have two different safe working loads for such cranes, i.e. one for hook and another for grab operation. Ensure the SWL is displayed clearly in the Jib and the same is mentioned in the operator’s cabin to eliminate any confusion between the two SWL.

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Related Reading: 11 Steps To Enhance Safety Of Bulk Carrier Ships Image credit: Sukhwinder Singh – Crane with Grab.

When handling the crane with a load that is near to its rated capacity, ensure to operate with patience and extreme caution, especially when using lifting slings. If the rated capacity limiter activates, the crane boom will suddenly stop causing the load to swing or bounce. During the stowed position, the hook of the hoist is clamped to a strong fixed point on deck. Ensure when lifting the boom/jib, it has been unhooked, and the jib is free of obstructions Never operate the Crane Jib below its lower limit with a load on the hoist, which can lead to failure of the jib or slipping of wire from its drum.

Related Reading: Understanding Heavy Lifting Operation And Vessel Stability

Various limit switches are provided to restrict the movement of the jib crane to its maximum position. Most of the cranes are provided with a key to bypass the limit switch for the jib. The operator and chief officer must ensure the key is never left in the cabin of the crane once the operation is finished. The key should be operated only under the chief officer’s supervision, and the crane should be operated with utmost care. Always check the base structure of the vessel before operating it for loosen foundation bolts and cracks in the structure. When the crane is operating at its maximum load, the base structure undergoes heavy stresses. The base structure contains the rotational parts involving sheaves, bearings and slew rings etc. They should be timely inspected to determine any wear on the parts. All these moving parts and equipment must be lubricated correctly using the appropriate grease. It has been reported in the past about the welding or other hot work carried by ship staff on crane structures or jibs. Never carry out any modification or welding job on crane structure or jib without consulting the maker. It is substantial load-carrying machinery subjected to massive, fluctuating loads. The crane parts are often made of a high-tensile material, for which specialized welding and repairing procedures are needed. If the jib of the crane shows any damage, it has to be reported to the owner and maker for getting the recommended repair advice.

Related Reading: 20 Tips For Safe Gas Welding And Cutting Operations On Ships

When performing welding on crane parts such as a jib, parts carrying wire ropes etc., it is recommended to disconnect the battery and switch off all the electronic control modules and any other electronic components provided in the crane.

Related Reading: How To Install Electronic Circuits On Ships

The most common failure related to the crane is the failure of wire ropes. The steel wire ropes must be lubricated to all its length and especially in the way of sheaves when the crane is in the stowed position. It is the responsibility of the Chief Officers to ensure all parts of the wire rope are regularly inspected and dressed with lubrication. Lack of lubrication may increase the rate of corrosion, leading to a decrease in the elasticity, fractured strand, breakage of wire etc. The ancillary parts for carrying the cable such as the pully, winch drum must be greased to eliminate any rough surface and friction.

Related Reading: Maintenance and Inspection Of Marine Wire Ropes For Better Performance

The ship staff has to timely check the condition of the hydraulic oil. The most common reason for deck crane machinery failure is dirty hydraulic oil, leading to choking of filters. The oil should be sent to shore for analysis at prescribed intervals of time to get a detailed analysis of the system

Related Reading : How to Test Lube Oil On Board Ship?

The brakes being the critical safety arrangement for the crane, has to be inspected at regular intervals of time by checking the lining condition for its thickness. If disk brakes are provided, clearance must be checks and the record to be added to the PMS file Many times it has been observed onboard that the covers of the limit switch box or other electrical connections are kept open all the time for the ease of checking. Always shut the cover as it has a waterproofing arrangement that prevents switched from malfunctioning during rainy weather. Hydraulic leaks are very common in all types of cranes, whether it is onboard deck cargo crane or a gantry crane in port. Never check the leaks using bare hands. Even a small hole will have pressurised hydraulic oil coming out as a fine mist will penetrate and damage the skin, and could do worse to human eyes. Always stop the operation, de-pressurise the line and then start the repair work.

Related Reading: 8 Common Problems In Hydraulic Operated Common Valve System On Ships Apart from the above maintenance and operating care, it is essential to follow the load test requirements which is done every five years by a competent representative of a classification society.

  • You may also like to read – Straddle Carriers – Design, Operation, Advantages And Disadvantages The Use of Inclinometer in the Maritime Industry Disclaimer: The authors’ views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of Marine Insight.
  • Data and charts, if used, in the article have been sourced from available information and have not been authenticated by any statutory authority.

The author and Marine Insight do not claim it to be accurate nor accept any responsibility for the same. The views constitute only the opinions and do not constitute any guidelines or recommendation on any course of action to be followed by the reader. An ardent sailor and a techie, Anish Wankhede has voyaged on a number of ships as a marine engineer officer. He loves multitasking, networking, and troubleshooting. He is the one behind the unique creativity and aesthetics at Marine Insight.

What is the safety device installed on overhead cranes to prevent two blocking called?

How to Use Altec’s Anti Two-Blocking System This Altec Sentry short course explains the function, testing and inspection of the Altec anti-two block system (ATB). Note: before using this system, you must complete general training and familiarization for every model of crane you will operate.

  1. Read and follow the safety and operating instructions in the operator’s manual and unit instructional placards.
  2. Follow all applicable work rules and regulations and use the required personal protective equipment.
  3. Anti two-block or ATB systems help prevent the ball block from contacting the boom tip.
  4. This is called two-blocking and can cause injury or death as well as damage to the crane, load line and ball or block.

The Altec ATB system consists of a load line weight suspended from a chain, connected to a boom tip ATB switch. The ATB switch connects to the crane’s LMAP system through a wire or battery-powered transmitter. Two-blocking can occur by:

Winching up too far Booming down Extending the boom without paying out enough load line

If this happens, the ATB system triggers an audible alarm and an alert on the LMAP screen. It also disables certain crane functions. Examine and test the ATB system during the pre-operational inspection and whenever it is reinstalled. Check that the cotter pins on the ATB weight and switch are secure and in good condition.

  1. The ATB chain has a quick connect link.
  2. This allows easy assembly when the crane is reconfigured for certain crane functions such as lifting personnel.
  3. During your visual inspection, ensure this quick connect link is fully closed and that the chain is the proper length.
  4. If the pins or quick connect link are damaged or inoperable, it could cause the weight to fall while the crane is in use.
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To test the ATB system, slowly raise the winch until the ATB weight is lifted. Verify the LMAP anti-two block alarm activates. Check the following control functions do not operate:

Winch raise Boom lower Boom extend Rotate (on some units)

The winch lower, boom raise and boom retract functions will operate normally. To complete the test, lower the winch to turn off the alarm and LMAP two-block warning. Verify normal winch and boom functions are restored. If any deficiencies are found, remove the unit from service and contact a qualified mechanic.

  • The anti-two block system is a critical safety component on your Altec crane.
  • Inspecting and testing it helps prevent death, injury, or equipment damage during crane operations.
  • Visit Altec Sentry’s to access operator safety and maintenance courses.
  • For questions about Sentry training or to register for a class, email,

: How to Use Altec’s Anti Two-Blocking System

What PPE is required for crane operation?

2. Select Appropriate PPE For All Employees – Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects workers from potential hazards. This includes helmets to protect against head injuries, safety glasses against flying debris, and steel-toe boots to protect feet from falling objects,

In the case of crane operators, gloves should be worn to prevent hand injuries and ensure a firm grip on the controls. Different operations might require additional types of PPE, such as high-visibility vests, earplugs or earmuffs for noise protection, and even respirators if the work involves exposure to harmful substances.

The employer needs to conduct a risk assessment to determine what PPE is needed for each task, provide it to the employees, and ensure they are trained to use it correctly.

What does SWL stand for?

SWL – is the abbreviation for S afe W orking L oad. SWL was formerly a commonly used term, but the legal meaning of the word “safe” meant that the term was largely replaced by WLL. In general, SWL today corresponds to WLL for all lifting equipment under the crane hook, such as hooks, shackles and other lifting equipment.

For cranes, hoists and winches, the term “Capacity” is used. The capacity is usually affected by the weight of the lifting beam or lifting equipment assembled under the crane hook. The term “safe workload” can still be used and then refers to a reduced load based on specific circumstances in the environment of use.

A risk assessment must always be carried out by a competent person before a lift to determine whether the load capacity is likely to be affected

What is the standard crane safety can be found in?

A crane is a machine used for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism an integral part of the machine. Overhead cranes are used in many industries to move heavy and oversized objects that other material handling methods cannot.

  • Overhead cranes have a railed support structure, known as a bridge, and a wheeled trolley that travels across the bridge horizontally.
  • The other primary component of an overhead crane is the hoist, that’s attached to the trolley, and is used to perform the lifts.
  • Several varieties of overhead cranes exist including gantry, semi- gantry, cantilever gantry, storage bridge and wall cranes.

Overhead crane safety is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.179, This regulation covers overhead and gantry crane general requirements, design, inspection, maintenance requirements and operations.

What is a 2 block on a crane?

Imagine there’s a lifting project being conducted on a construction site. A rigger and a crane operator are working together to complete the task. The rigger was putting slings on the crane’s hook when the crane operator decided to extend the boom a little further.

But then, the hook and ball assembly got attached to the boom tip, putting extra stress on the hoist line. While the workers were busy with their tasks, the hoist line suddenly snapped, causing the ball and hook to free-fall to the ground. Because the rigger was standing right below the assembly, he was severely injured! What caused this accident? The reason behind it is two-blocking.

Could the accident have been prevented? Yes, it could’ve been prevented if the rigger or the operator were paying close attention to the hook when the boom was being extended. Two blocking refers to a situation when a crane’s lower load block for instance the hook assembly, comes in contact with its upper load block, i.e.

  • The boom tip.
  • This can cause the hoist line to fail as it puts a lot of stress on the assembly and damages it.
  • According to statistics from 1984-94, 2% of all crane related deaths in the U.S construction industry were caused because of two-blocking.
  • The good news is that, technological advancements have made it extremely easy to prevent two-blocking accidents.

With anti-two-blocking warning systems, crane operators can ensure the proper functioning of the machine and keep the hook from getting into contact with the boom tip. According to the ASME, American National Standards for Mobile and Locomotive Cranes, every crane manufactured after second February 1992, must have an anti-two-blocking warning system installed. The two most popular types of anti-two-blocking warning systems are wireless and hardwired ATB system.

What are the four major types of crane accidents?

The main four causes of crane accidents are contact with power lines, overturns, falls, and mechanical failure.

What are the hazards in crane lifting?

Lifting & Crane Hazards: – Shifting of materials from one place to another place using Crane and Boom truck (Lifting) is a critical work which has the following hazards:

Load falling: When lifting a load, there is a risk of it falling, which can cause injuries to people and damage to property. Hitting and crushing: Loads can swing and collide with existing facilities, causing damage or injury. Crane toppling: If the crane is not properly set up or overloaded, it can topple over, potentially causing serious injury or death. Environmental factors: High wind speed, poor communication, and poor visibility can also contribute to crane accidents. Damage to underground utilities: When moving heavy loads, there is a risk of damaging underground utilities or other infrastructure, which can be costly and dangerous. Electrical hazards : When working near power lines or electrical equipment, there is a risk of electrocution, which can be fatal. Inadequate training: Operating a crane or boom truck without proper training and certification can result in accidents and injuries. Equipment failure: Equipment failure can occur due to a lack of maintenance or faulty parts, leading to accidents and injuries. Human error: Accidents can also occur due to human error, such as miscommunication or improper use of equipment.

It is important to take appropriate safety measures and precautions when using cranes and boom trucks to ensure the safety of personnel and property.

What PPE is needed for lifting?

Other Important Things to Remember –

Limit weight you lift to no more than 50 pounds. When lifting loads heavier than 50 pounds, use two or more people to lift the load. If loads heavier than 100lbs have to be lifted, use mechanical means (e.g. hand trucks, pushcarts, etc.). Remember to obtain training and authorization before using a forklift. It is easier and safer to push than to pull. Use personal protective equipment where needed, such as gloves with good grip and steel-toed boots where appropriate, to avoid finger injuries and contact stress. Ensure that gloves fit properly and provide adequate grip. Where possible, utilize handholds such as handles, slots, or holes that provide enough room for gloved hands. Try to use materials that are packaged with proper handholds or move materials into containers with good handholds. Suction devices are helpful in lifting junction boxes and other materials with smooth, flat surfaces. Other tools may be available that can create temporary handles. Avoid using awkward postures, such as overhead reaching and crawling, by placing objects on shelves, tables, racks, or stacked pallets that are waist-high; or by using ladders or aerial lifts where necessary to elevate yourself and minimize overhead reaching. Roll-out decks in truck beds can be utilized to bring materials closer to the employee and eliminate the need to crawl into the back of a truck.

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What is the basic rule in operation of cranes?

Safety criteria for operating cranes: –

Always be aware of potential hazards on high. Especially with buildings or electrical wires around the work area. Use appropriate mats or sheets to prevent foot slipping when lifting Pay attention to changes in working conditions weather, etc. Understand the load chart before unlocking Check oil, air pressure, or other storage fluids before operating the machine Do not use overload work Do not use a phone while operating the crane Arrange time for breaks, assess work and plan a safer schedule. The crane operator should walk around the work area of the machine to check for mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic issues and identify any abnormal signs.

The above are the mandatory safety rules that crane operators must understand and implement to ensure high safety levels during crane operation. If these rules are followed strictly, the operation becomes simpler and it is also one of the important factors in avoiding accidents on the construction site.

What is the safety device around the edge of a ships deck?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the British sailor and author known as Taffrail, see H. Taprell Dorling, In naval architecture, a taffrail is the handrail around the open deck area toward the stern of a ship or boat, The rear deck of a ship is often called the afterdeck or poop deck,

  • Not all ships have an afterdeck or poop deck.
  • Sometimes taffrail refers to just the curved wooden top of the stern of a sailing man-of-war or East Indiaman ship.
  • The rails of these wooden sailing ships usually had hand-carved wooden rails, often highly decorated.
  • Sometimes taffrail refers to the complete deck area at the stern of a vessel.

A taffrail should not be confused with a pushpit, which is a common name for the tubular protection rail running around the stern of a small yacht. A taffrail log is a mechanical speed logging device, used like a car odometer, The taffrail log was towed from the stern or taffrail of the ship by a long line.

What is that safety device installed on deck to prevent back flow of Vapours and other gases back to the engine?

Components and description of IG system : – The following components are used in a typical inert gas system in oil tankers: 1. Exhaust gases source: inert gas source is taken from exhaust uptakes of boiler or main engine as contains flue gases in it.2.

  1. Inert gas isolating valve: It serves as the supply valve from uptake to the rest of the system isolating both the systems when not in use.3.
  2. Scrubbing tower: Flue gas enters the scrub tower from the bottom and passes through a series of water spray and baffle plates to cool, clean and moist the gases.

The SO2 level decreases up to 90% and gas becomes clear of soot.4. Demister: Normally made of polypropylene, it is used to absorb moisture and water from the treated flue gas.5. Gas Blower: Normally two types of fan blowers are used, a steam-driven turbine blower for I.G operation and an electrically driven blower for topping up purposes.6.I.G pressure regulating valve: The pressure within the tanks varies with the property of the oil and atmospheric condition. 7. Deck seal: The purpose of the deck seal is to stop the gases to return back which are coming from the blower to cargo tanks. Normally wet type deck seals are used. A demister is fitted to absorb the moisture carried away by the gases.8. Mechanical non-return valve: It is an additional non-return mechanical device in line with the deck seal.9.

Deck isolating valve: The engine room system can be isolated fully with the deck system with the help of this valve.10. Pressure Vacuum (PV) breaker: The PV breaker helps in controlling the over or under pressurization of cargo tanks. The PV breaker vent is fitted with a flame trap to avoid the fire igniting when loading or discharging operation is going on when in port.11.

Cargo tank isolating valves: A vessel has number of cargo holds and each hold is provided with an isolating valve. The valve controls the flow of inert gas to hold and is operated only by a responsible officer in the vessel.12. Mast riser: Mast riser is used to maintain a positive pressure of inert gas at the time of loading of cargo and during the loading time it is kept open to avoid pressurization of the cargo tank.13.

  • High Level in scrubber leads to alarm and shutdown of blower and scrubber tower
  • Low-pressure seawater supply (approx.0.7 bar) to scrubber tower leads to alarm and shutdown of blower
  • Low pressure seawater supply (approx.1.5 bar) to deck seal leads to alarm and shutdown of blower
  • High inert gas temperature (approx.70 deg C) leads to alarm and shutdown of blower
  • Low pressure in line after blower (approx.250mm wg) leads to alarm and shutdown of blower
  • Oxygen content high (8%) leads to alarm and shutdown of gas delivery to deck
  • Low level in deck seal leads to alarm and shutdown of gas delivery to deck
  • Power failure leads to alarm and shutdown of blower and scrubber tower
  • Emergency stop leads to alarm and shutdown of blower and scrubber tower

Following are various alarms incorporated in the Inert Gas plant:

  • Scrubber low level
  • Deck seal High level
  • Low O2 Content (1%)
  • High O2 Content (5%)
  • Low lube oil pressure alarm

What is a safety device that is fitted to the mobile lifting equipments to detect the load being lifted under variable conditions called?

Safe Load Indicator Warning device for cranes A Safe Load Indicator (SLI) or an Automatic Safe Load Indicator (ASLI) is a device which is installed on mobile or portal to alert the operator if the lift is exceeding the safe operating range of the machinery.

In some cases, the device will physically lock the machinery in circumstances it determines to be unsafe. SLI systems are usually composed of a connected to various sensors on the crane itself. The SLI measures the angle and extension of the along with the load weight and compares this with the manufacturer’s specifications to determine if the lift is safe.

A safe load indicator has the capability of detecting the angle, weight of load lifted, and ground radius of any lifting device. It controls the lifting equipment to the level that it tries to keep the machinery functioning as per the manufacturer’s suggested safety charts.