What Is Engineering Control In Safety
Engineering Controls – Engineering controls reduce or prevent hazards from coming into contact with workers. Engineering controls can include modifying equipment or the workspace, using protective barriers, ventilation, and more. The NIOSH Engineering Controls Database has examples of published engineering control research findings. The most effective engineering controls:

  • are part of the original equipment design
  • remove or block the hazard at the source before it comes into contact with the worker
  • prevent users from modifying or interfering with the control
  • need minimal user input for the controls to work
  • operate correctly without interfering with the work process or making the work process more difficult

Engineering controls can cost more upfront than administrative controls or PPE. However, long-term operating costs tend to be lower, especially when protecting multiple workers. In addition, engineering controls can save money in other areas of the work process or facility operation.

What is engineering controls?

Definition. In the context of health and safety, an ‘Engineering Control’ can be described as a physical modification to a process, or process equipment, or the installation of further equipment with the goal of preventing the release of contaminants into the workplace (adapted from).

What are the 3 types of engineering controls?

II. Engineering and Work Practice Controls – A. Engineering Controls Engineering controls, such as ventilation, and good work practices are the preferred methods of minimizing exposures to airborne lead at the worksite. The engineering control methods that can be used to reduce or eliminate lead exposures can be grouped into three main categories: (1) substitution; (2) isolation; and (3) ventilation.

  1. Substitution
    1. Substitution includes using a material that is less hazardous than lead, changing from one type of process equipment to another, or even, in some cases, changing the process itself to reduce the potential exposure to lead. In other words, material, equipment, or an entire process can be substituted to provide effective control of a lead hazard. However, in choosing alternative methods, a hazard evaluation should be conducted to identify inherent hazards of the method and equipment.
    2. Examples of substitution include:
      • Use of a less hazardous material : applying a nonleaded paint rather than a coating that contains lead.
      • Change in process equipment : using less dusty methods such as vacuum blast cleaning, wet abrasive blast cleaning, shrouded power tool cleaning, or chemical stripping to substitute for open abrasive blast cleaning to reduce exposure to respirable airborne particulates containing lead.
      • Change in process : performing demolition work using mobile hydraulic shears instead of a cutting torch to reduce exposure to lead fumes generated by heating lead compounds.
    3. Any material that is being considered as a substitute for a lead-based paint should be evaluated to ensure that it does not contain equally or more toxic components (e.g., cadmium or chromates). Because substitute materials can also be hazardous, employers must obtain a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) before a material is used in the workplace. If the MSDS identifies the material as hazardous, as defined by OSHA’s hazard communication standard ( 29 CFR 1926.59 ), an MSDS must be maintained at the job site and proper protective measures must be implemented prior to usage of the material.
  2. Isolation is a method of limiting lead exposure to those employees who are working directly with it. A method which isolates lead contamination and thus protects both nonessential workers, bystanders, and the environment is to erect a sealed containment structure around open abrasive blasting operations. However, this method may substantially increase the lead exposures of the workers doing the blasting inside the structure. The containment structure must therefore be provided with negative-pressure exhaust ventilation to reduce workers’ exposure to lead, improve visibility, and reduce emissions from the enclosure.
  3. Ventilation
    1. Ventilation, either local or dilution (general), is probably the most important engineering control available to the safety and health professional to maintain airborne concentrations of lead at acceptable levels. Local exhaust ventilation, which includes both portable ventilation systems and shrouded tools supplied with ventilation, is generally the preferred method. If a local exhaust system is properly designed, it will capture and control lead particles at or near the source of generation and transport these particles to a collection system before they can be dispersed into the work environment.
    2. Dilution ventilation, on the other hand, allows lead particles generated by work activities to spread throughout the work area and then dilutes the concentration of particles by circulating large quantities of air into and out from the work area. For work operations where the sources of lead dust generation are numerous and widely distributed (e.g., open abrasive blasting conducted in containment structures), dilution ventilation may be the best control.
    3. Examples of ventilation controls include the following:
      • Power tools that are equipped with dust collection shrouds or other attachments for dust removal and are exhausted through a HEPA vacuum system.
      • Vacuum blast nozzles (vacuum blasting is a variation on open abrasive blasting). In this type of blasting, the blast nozzle has local containment (a shroud) at its end, and containment is usually accomplished through brush-lined attachments at the outer periphery and a vacuum inlet between the blast nozzle and the outer brushes. Containment structures that are provided with negative-pressure dilution ventilation systems to reduce airborne lead concentrations within the enclosure, increase visibility, and control emissions of particulate matter to the environment.

B. Work Practice Controls Work practices involve the way a task is performed. OSHA has found that appropriate work practices can be a vital aid in lowering worker exposures to hazardous substances and in achieving compliance with the PEL. Some fundamental and easily implemented work practices are: (1) good housekeeping, (2) use of appropriate personal hygiene practices, (3) periodic inspection and maintenance of process and control equipment, (4) use of proper procedures to perform a task, (5) provision of supervision to ensure that the proper procedures are followed, and (6) use of administrative controls.

  1. Housekeeping
    1. A rigorous housekeeping program is necessary in many jobs to keep airborne lead levels at or below permissible exposure limits. Good housekeeping involves a regular schedule of housekeeping activities to remove accumulations of lead dust and lead-containing debris. The schedule should be adapted to exposure conditions at a particular worksite.
    2. All workplace surfaces must be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead dust. Lead dust on overhead ledges, equipment, floors, and other surfaces must be removed to prevent traffic, vibration, or random air currents from re-entraining the lead-laden dust and making it airborne again. Regularly scheduled clean-ups are important because they minimize the re-entrainment of lead dust into the air, which otherwise serves as an additional source of exposure that engineering controls are generally not designed to control.
    3. Vacuuming is considered the most reliable method of cleaning dusty surfaces, but any effective method that minimizes the likelihood of re-entrainment may be used (for example, a wet floor scrubber). When vacuuming equipment is used, the vacuums must be equipped with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Blowing with compressed air is generally prohibited as a cleaning method, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system that is designed to capture the airborne dust created by the compressed air (e.g. dust “blowdown” inside a negative-pressure containment structure). In addition, all persons doing the cleanup should be provided with suitable respiratory protection and personal protective clothing to prevent contact with lead.
    4. Where feasible, lead-containing debris and contaminated items accumulated for disposal should be wet-misted before handling. Such materials must be collected and put into sealed impermeable bags or other closed impermeable containers. Bags and containers must be labeled to indicate that they contain lead-containing waste.
  2. Personal Hygiene Practices
    1. Personal hygiene is also an important element in any program to protect workers from exposure to lead dust. When employee exposure is above the PEL, the lead standard requires the employer to provide, and ensure that workers use, adequate shower facilities (where feasible), hand-washing facilities, clean change areas, and separate noncontaminated eating areas. Employees must also wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, using tobacco products, or applying cosmetics, and they must not eat, drink, use tobacco products, or apply cosmetics in any work area where the PEL is exceeded. In addition, employees must not enter lunchroom facilities or eating areas while wearing protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has first been removed from the clothing or equipment by vacuuming or another cleaning method that limits dispersion of lead dust.
    2. Workers who do not shower and change into clean clothing before leaving the worksite may contaminate their homes and vehicles with lead dust. Other members of the household may then be exposed to harmful amounts of lead. A recent NIOSH publication (NIOSH 1992) points out the dangers of “take-home” lead contamination. For the same reason, vehicles driven to the worksite should be parked where they will not be contaminated with lead.
    3. The personal hygiene measures described above will reduce worker exposure to lead and decrease the likelihood of lead absorption caused by ingestion or inhalation of lead particles. In addition, these measures will minimize employee exposure to lead after the work shift ends, significantly reduce the movement of lead from the worksite, and provide added protection to employees and their families.
  3. Change Areas
    1. When employee airborne exposures to lead are above the PEL, the employer must provide employees with a clean change area that is equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and a separate area with facilities for the removal and storage of lead-contaminated protective work clothing and equipment. Separate clean and dirty change areas are essential in preventing cross-contamination of the employees’ street and work clothing.
    2. Clean change areas are used to remove street clothes, to suit up in clean work clothes (protective clothing), and to don respirators prior to beginning work, and to dress in street clothes after work. No lead-contaminated items are permitted to enter the clean change area. Work clothing should be worn only on the job site. Under no circumstances should lead-contaminated work clothes be laundered at home or taken from the worksite, except to be laundered professionally or properly disposed of following applicable Federal, State, and local regulations.
  4. Showers. When employee exposures exceed the PEL, the employer must provide employees with suitable shower facilities, where feasible, so that exposed employees can remove accumulated lead dust from their skin and hair prior to leaving the worksite. Where shower facilities are available, employees must shower at the end of the work shift before changing into their street clothes and leaving the worksite. Showers must be equipped with hot and cold water, in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.51(f)(4)(iv),
  5. Washing Facilities. Washing facilities must be provided to employees in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.51(f), Water, soap, and clean towels are to be provided for this purpose. Where showers are not provided, the employer must ensure that employees wash their hands and faces at the end of the work shift.
  6. Eating Facilities. The employer must provide employees who are exposed to lead at levels exceeding the PEL with eating facilities or designated areas that are readily accessible to employees and must ensure that the eating area is free from lead contamination. To further minimize the possibility of food contamination and reduce the likelihood of additional lead absorption from contaminated food, beverages, tobacco, and cosmetic products, the employer must prohibit the storage, use, or consumption of these products in any area where lead dust or fumes may be present.
  7. Periodic Inspection and Maintenance. Periodic inspection and maintenance of process equipment and control equipment such as ventilation systems are another important work practice control. At worksites where full containment is used as an environmental control, the failure of the ventilation system for the containment area can result in hazardous exposures to workers within the enclosure. Equipment that is near failure or in disrepair will not perform as intended. Regular inspections can detect abnormal conditions so that timely maintenance can be performed. If process and control equipment is routinely inspected, maintained, and repaired, or is replaced before failure occurs, there is less chance that hazardous employee exposures will occur.
  8. Performance of Task
    1. In addition to the work practice controls previously described in Section B, the employer must provide training and information to employees as required by OSHA’s lead in construction ( 29 CFR 1926.62 ), hazard communication ( 29 CFR 1926.59 ), and safety training and education ( 29 CFR 1926.21 ) standards. One important element of this program is training workers to follow the proper work practices and procedures for their jobs. Workers must know the proper way to perform job tasks to minimize their exposure to lead and to maximize the effectiveness of engineering controls. For example, if a worker performs a task away from (rather than close to) an exhaust hood, the control measure will be unable to capture the particulates generated by the task and will thus be ineffective.
    2. In certain applications such as abatement in buildings, wet methods can significantly reduce the generation of lead-containing dust in the work area. Wetting of surfaces with water mist prior to sanding, scraping, or sawing, and wetting lead-containing building components prior to removal will minimize airborne dust generation during these activities. Failure to operate engineering controls properly may also contaminate the work area. Workers can be informed of safe operating procedures through fact sheets, discussions at safety meetings, and other educational means.
  9. Supervision
    1. Good supervision is another important work practice. It provides needed support for ensuring that proper work practices are followed by workers. By directing a worker to position the exhaust hood properly or to improve work practice, such as standing to the side or upwind of the cutting torch to avoid the smoke plume, a supervisor can do much to minimize unnecessary employee exposure to airborne contaminants.
    2. The OSHA construction standard for lead also requires that a competent person perform frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment. A competent person is defined by the standard as one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable lead hazards and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
  10. Administrative Controls
    1. Administrative controls are another form of work practice controls that can be used to influence the way a task is performed. Controls of this type generally involve scheduling of the work or the worker. For example, employee exposure can be controlled by scheduling construction activities or workers’ tasks in ways that minimize employee exposure levels. One method the employer can use is to schedule the most dust- or fume-producing operations for a time when the fewest number of employees will be present.
    2. Another method is worker rotation, which involves rotating employees into and out of contaminated areas in the course of a shift, thereby reducing the full-shift exposure of any given employee. When a worker is rotated out of the job that involves lead exposure, he or she is assigned to an area of the worksite that does not involve lead exposure. If this method is used to control worker exposure to lead, the lead standard requires that the employer implement a job rotation schedule that (1) identifies each affected worker, (2) lists the duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located, and (3) lists any other information that may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.
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Which is an example of an engineering control?

Directory of Engineering Controls Engineering controls protect workers by removing hazardous conditions or by placing a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Examples include local exhaust ventilation to capture and remove airborne emissions or machine guards to shield the worker.

  • Well-designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions.
  • They typically do not interfere with worker productivity or personal comfort and make the work easier to perform rather than more difficult.
  • The initial cost of engineering controls can be higher than some other control methods, but over the longer term, operating costs are frequently lower, and in some instances, can provide a cost savings in other areas of the process.

To learn more about how engineering controls fit into the strategy for reducing and/or eliminating occupational hazards, visit our website. NIOSH researchers help prevent occupational disease and injury by conducting engineering control technology evaluations and developing practical, solutions-oriented control technology interventions. NIOSH Researchers reduce the risk of fall injuries and fatalities in construction by evaluating mast climber fall-arrest scenarios and providing recommendations to standards committees and equipment manufacturers. : Directory of Engineering Controls

What is an example of a safety engineering control?

Engineering Controls – Engineering controls are the first line of defense. They are physical changes to the work area or process that minimizes a worker’s exposure to the hazard. Examples of engineering controls include installing guardrails to prevent falls, limiting exposure to hazardous chemicals via ventilation, using portable air conditioners to combat heat stress and installing noise absorption panels to dampen high noise levels.

What are the engineering controls in industrial safety?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Engineering controls are strategies designed to protect workers from hazardous conditions by placing a barrier between the worker and the hazard or by removing a hazardous substance through air ventilation, Engineering controls involve a physical change to the workplace itself, rather than relying on workers’ behavior or requiring workers to wear protective clothing.

Engineering controls is the third of five members of the hierarchy of hazard controls, which orders control strategies by their feasibility and effectiveness. Engineering controls are preferred over administrative controls and personal protective equipment (PPE) because they are designed to remove the hazard at the source, before it comes in contact with the worker.

Well-designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection. The initial cost of engineering controls can be higher than the cost of administrative controls or PPE, but over the longer term, operating costs are frequently lower, and in some instances, can provide a cost savings in other areas of the process.

Is Loto an engineering control?

Lock-out/Tag-out, technically called ‘The Control of Hazardous Energy’ by OSHA, is a combination of engineering and administrative controls.

Are gloves an engineering control?

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to provide a workplace free from recognized hazards and comply with standards, rules and regulations issued under the OSH Act. Hazards exist in every workplace in many different forms: sharp edges, falling objects, power tools, flying sparks, noise, hazardous chemicals, electricity, extreme temperatures, elevated work surfaces, etc.

Controlling a hazard at its source is the best way to protect workers – the hazard is not given the opportunity to enter the workers’ environment. This type of hazard control is called an Engineering Control: control measures that are built into the design of a facility, equipment or process to minimize the hazard.

Engineering controls are always the first line of defense against exposure to hazards. OSHA requires that workplaces implement engineering controls to minimize hazards, to the extent feasible. Administrative controls (employee training, information, work scheduling, etc.) and personal protective equipment (protective clothing, gloves, eye protection, respiratory protection, etc.) are important supplements to engineering controls, but do not take the place of engineering controls.

Effective, well-designed engineering controls operate without interfering with worker productivity or personal comfort and make the work easier to perform rather than more difficult. Engineering controls on equipment may have been factory-installed or added at another time. Most modern power equipment is almost always manufactured with some sort of hazard-control component (e.g.

dust collectors, blade covers, automatic stops triggered by sensors). Older, unguarded equipment is often retrofitted with engineering controls, either manufactured or “homemade”. Equipment engineering controls must never be removed or bypassed by the user.

The initial cost of engineering controls can be higher than some other control methods, but over the longer term, operating costs are frequently lower, and in some instances, can provide a cost savings in other areas of the process. In laboratories, the primary concern is to prevent exposures to hazardous chemicals.

Always work with hazardous chemicals in working chemical fume hoods, which removes chemical vapors at their source. Please see the website on Laboratory Ventilation for more information.

Is PPE an example of an engineering control?

Examples: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)—Personal Protective Equipment is worn by employees to protect them from the environment. PPE includes anything from gloves to full body suits with self-contained breathing apparatus and can be used with engineering and administrative controls.

Is a fire extinguisher an engineering control?

Engineering controls can help isolate people from hazards and make the lab safer, according to the OSHA/NIOSH “Hierarchy of Controls.” Laboratories require specific engineering controls to address biological, chemical, and physical hazards. Appropriate and mandated engineering controls include ventilation, fume hoods, fire extinguishers, eyewash stations, and safety showers.

  • The following list describes common engineering controls found in academic laboratories.1.
  • Electrical safety controls To minimize the risks associated with electrical equipment (e.g., shock, electrocution), all science laboratories, storerooms, and preparation rooms need to have ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) electrical receptacles.

Note: Do not touch the metal prongs of a plug when plugging it into an electrical receptacle. In addition, GFCI switches need to be tested at least once a year, because they can corrode. To test the GFCI receptacle, just press the “TEST” button on the outlet.

If the GFCI switches are working, the power will be cut off of the two plug receptacles. To make sure the power is off, plug in an electrical device such as a lamp. The light should go out. You could also use a voltage tester, which would indicate no power when the “TEST” button is pushed. Once you confirm that the GFCI is working, press the “RESET” button on the outlet, and the power should be restored.2.

Eyewash/shower To neutralize corrosive chemical splash exposure hazards, ANSI/ISEA ( ANSI / ISEA Z358.1-2014 ) requires 10-second access to any eyewash station or safety shower in the laboratory. These devices require exposure to tepid water (60–100°F; 16°–38°C) for 15 minutes minimum.3.

  1. Fire blanket Flame-retardant wool or similar types of materials can be used to smother small lab fires.
  2. Secure fire blankets inside wall-mounted canisters or boxes with appropriate signage.4.
  3. Fire suppression The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) requires labs to carry fire suppression equipment such as fire extinguishers and fire sprinkler heads due to the risk of fire or explosions from flammable lab chemicals.

Fire extinguishers should be of the A-B-C type. Type D fire extinguishers are for combustible metals such as magnesium, potassium, and sodium. Employers must train science teachers annually for proper use of extinguishers if employee use of the extinguishers is allowed.5.

Footprint Emergency evacuation is critical in the event of an explosion, fire, toxins, shock, and more. Laboratory furniture should be placed to facilitate easy movement and fast egress and ensure that there are no trip/fall hazards. Legal occupancy loads per National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Code Council (ICC) are approximately 50 sq.

ft. per lab occupant. Academic/professional occupancy loads should be addressed based on a maximum of 24 students per laboratory (within legal occupancy load levels).6. Fume hood Fume hoods provide local exhaust ventilation for hazardous gases, particulates, vapors, and more, which present a risk to lab occupants.

Hoods should be checked and certified operational approximately one to four times a year, depending on frequency of use.7. Goggle sanitizer State goggle statutes and OSHA PPE standards require eye protection to be sanitized. Ultraviolet goggle sanitizer cabinets take approximately 15 minutes to sanitize goggles.

Alternatives to sanitizers include disinfectants, alcohol, or dish detergent.8. Master shut-off controls Master shut-off devices for utilities such as electricity, gas, and water are also a must, given the risks of electrocution, shock, and explosion.9.

Sensors Sensors for smoke, heat, and fire are necessary for a safer laboratory, especially during unoccupied times.10. Safety shields When there is risk for projectile motion or splashing of chemicals and springs in demonstrations, legal safety practices require use of safety shields, in addition to chemical splash goggles.11.Ventilation Both OSHA and NFPA (NFPA 45) require forced air ventilation in science laboratories, preparation rooms, and chemical storerooms.

NFPA 45-2015 requires that laboratory units and laboratory hoods in which chemicals are present shall be continuously ventilated under normal operating conditions. Final thoughts Academic science labs must have engineering controls in place and effectively operating.

  • The teacher must report to their employer if these controls are not in place or malfunctioning.
  • They also must not do any demonstrations or other lab work until they are installed and functioning correctly.
  • Submit questions regarding safety to Ken Roy at [email protected] or leave him a comment below.

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Is hand washing an engineering control?

Nurse Jennifer completed the incident report with her Charge Nurse and immediately was sent to the lab for a blood draw and rapid HIV test. She received her HBV series five years ago when she began nursing school. Was she still covered against HBV? What is the blood test for HIV? How soon does HIV testing show results? Jennifer suffered emotionally throughout the rest of her shift until the answers came.

Was she wearing gloves when she took the blood specimen? Didn’t she always? Now she couldn’t remember because she wasn’t consistent about PPE use. Engineering controls are devices that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen hazard from the workplace (OSHA, 2019a). Controlling the environmental hazards are part of the directive to decrease the potential for the spread of bloodborne pathogens and other potentially infectious agents.

The various environmental controls include:

  • Hand washing, that sends pathogens on the worker’s hands down the drain and out of the workplace
  • Elimination of hazardous materials from the workplace, such as the replacement of a hazardous chemical with a safer one, or needleless systems for injection
  • Devices that contain the hazard, such as specimen containers, safety sharps, sharps disposal containers, and red bags

Engineering controls, including facilities for hand washing, must be maintained or replaced on a regular schedule to ensure their effectiveness. When handwashing facilities are not available, an antiseptic hand cleanser should be provided. Hands must be washed after gloves are removed or any time there is skin contact with blood or other body fluids.

What are the 5 hierarchy of risk control?

The Hierarchy of Controls,

NIOSH defines five rungs of the Hierarchy of Controls: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls and personal protective equipment. The hierarchy is arranged beginning with the most effective controls and proceeds to the least effective. Although eliminating the hazard is the ultimate goal, it can be difficult and is not always possible. NIOSH’s Prevention through Design Initiative comprises “all of the efforts to anticipate and design out hazards to workers in facilities, work methods and operations, processes, equipment, tools, products, new technologies, and the organization of work.”

A hazardous substance splashes onto a chemical plant operator taking a sample. The worker is not seriously injured, and the ensuing investigation focuses on training, personal protective equipment and the particulars of the sampling station. But did anyone ever ask whether the worker needed to take the sample at all? Identifying and mitigating exposures to occupational hazards before work begins is the objective of all safety and health professionals.

Elimination – Physically remove the hazard Substitution – Replace the hazard Engineering controls – Isolate people from the hazard Administrative controls – Change the way people work Personal protective equipment – Protect the worker with PPE

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“You can’t eliminate every hazard, but the closer you can get to the top, the closer you can reach that ideal and make people healthier and safer,” said Jonathan Bach, director of NIOSH’s Prevention through Design Initiative.

Is barricade an engineering control?

What is a Barricade? – Definition from Safeopedia A barricade, in the context of electrical safety, is any object or device erected to prevent unqualified persons from accessing an area where energized electrical equipment is present. It acts as an engineering control, reducing risk by ensuring that unqualified persons keep their distance from the electrical hazard.

In the United States, the use of barricades to prevent access to energized electrical systems is mandated by OSHA and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Electrical hazards are one of the most common causes of workplace fatality, and as such, any company that deals with electrical systems is obligated to comply with several different mandatory regulations and standards.

The specific safety requirements that are required for work near, or on, electrical equipment vary based on the nature of the equipment itself. The use of a barricade is primarily required in situations where electrical workers are operating on or near energized equipment.

  1. Energized equipment is any equipment which is connected to, or is itself, a source of voltage.
  2. Electrical safety regulations put forward by OSHA, the NFPA and other recognized organizations generally require electrical equipment to be de-energized before anyone may work on them; however, in some cases this is not possible.

As work on energized equipment is often very hazardous, the use of a barricade ensures that no unqualified person can enter the area in which the hazard is present. The erection of a barrier is not by itself sufficient to meet most jurisdictions’ OHS standards – the minimum safe distance between an electrical system and an individual depends on the specific electrical qualities of the system itself.

The NFPA 70e standard requires that employers use specific, standardized calculations to ensure that barricades are placed far enough away from a particular piece of equipment to prevent unauthorized persons from crossing into an unsafe area. The calculated minimum safe distance from an electrical system is known as an “approach boundary.” In some contexts, “barricade” may simply refer to warning signage designed to dissuade unqualified persons from entering the hazardous area, but which do not actually provide a physical barrier.

For the purpose of electrical safety, however, the barricade is usually a physical obstacle. Share this Term : What is a Barricade? – Definition from Safeopedia

Is a sharps container an engineering control?

September 12, 2002 Mr. George R. Salem Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer, & Feld, LLP Attorney at Law Robert S. Strauss Building 1333 New Hampshire Avenue NW Washington, D.C.20036-1564 Dear Mr. Salem: Thank you for your June 24, 2002 letter to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regarding the applicability of needle destruction devices as engineering controls under the scope of OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1030.

  1. Needle destruction devices (NDDs), such as SharpX (BioMedical Disposal, Inc.), are medical devices designed to incinerate a contaminated needle attached to a syringe after withdrawal from a patient.
  2. Your letter addresses several issues, which are restated below, followed by OSHA’s response.
  3. Issue #1: OSHA inspectors continue to be advised that needle destruction devices (NDDs) are “not compliant” with the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.

OSHA Response #1: The standard defines engineering controls as “controls (e.g., sharps disposal containers, self-sheathing needles, safer medical devices, such as sharps with engineered sharps injury protection and needleless systems) that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the workplace.” A device that reduces the risk to employees by destroying contaminated needles is clearly a type of engineering control, and OSHA’s field staff have been so advised.

To comply with the standard, an employer must use engineering and work practice controls that will “eliminate or minimize employee exposure” (Sec.1910.1030(d)(2)(i)). OSHA’s compliance directive explains that under this requirement “the employer must use engineering and work practice controls that eliminate occupational exposure or reduce it to the lowest feasible extent” (OSHA CPL 2-2.69 §XIII, D.2.).

The employer’s exposure control plan is to describe the method the employer will use to meet the regulatory requirement. The plan must be reviewed and updated at least annually to reflect changes in technology that will eliminate or reduce exposure (Sec.1910.1030(c)(1)(iv)).

  1. An NDD may be included as a component of an employer’s exposure control plan to the extent it assists the employer in minimizing exposures.
  2. Use of an NDD alone will not be sufficient to meet the standard’s requirements, however it is appropriate where use of a different or an additional control will reduce exposure to a lower level.

In this connection, we note that a Needle Destruction Device, like a sharps disposal container, is an engineering control for the point of disposal. Because an NDD is intended to eliminate the needle after use, it may be beneficial in reducing or eliminating exposure to downstream workers.

  1. On the other hand, an NDD provides no protection while an employee is using the needle or prior to placing the needle in the device.
  2. This is where much of the employee exposure occurs.
  3. For example, according to data from EPINet at the International Health Care Worker Safety Center at the University of Virginia (which you provided in your letter of May 23, 2002), most injuries from contaminated sharps occur during use (32%), between steps (13%), during other activity after use, before disposal (18%), and when putting the item into a disposal container (7%).

Approximately 90% of the injuries documented occurred while using a needle without a safety feature. In many situations, devices are available that will reduce exposures prior to the point of disposal. Where feasible, the most effective way of removing the hazard of a contaminated needle is to eliminate the needle altogether by converting to needleless systems.

In other situations, the hazard can be reduced through using a sharp with engineered sharps injury protection (SESIP), which isolates the sharp from the healthcare worker as it is withdrawn from the patient. Congress recognized the value of needleless systems and SESIPs by enacting the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act (NSPA), P.L.106-430, 114 Stat.1901, which amended the bloodborne pathogen standard to include and define these terms.

Section 2(7) of NSPA provides that “the use of safer medical devices, such as needleless systems and sharps with engineered sharps injury protection, when they are part of an overall bloodborne pathogens risk-reduction program, can be extremely effective in reducing accidental sharps injuries.” The distinction between NDDs, on the one hand, and SESIPs and needleless systems, on the other hand has been recognized by Federal OSHA, the State of California Department of Industrial Relations, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): OSHA has stated previously, “the most effective way of removing the hazard of a contaminated needle is to eliminate the needle completely by converting to needleless systems.

If this is not possible, removal of the hazard as soon as possible after contamination is required. This is best accomplished by using a sharp with engineered sharps injury protection (SESIP)” ( Letter of Interpretation to Congressman LaTourette, June 27, 2001 ). Further, Cal/OSHA, in its response to a petition submitted by BioMedical for its SharpX device (Cal/OSHA, Petition File No.416, September 11, 2000), states, “other than possibly reducing needlestick injuries during disposal related to their use or failure, alternative disposal technologies no more provide protection from contaminated needlestick injuries at ‘the point of use’ than do traditional sharps boxes.” The FDA puts NDDs into the same family of protection as sharps containers.

They “place sharps needle destruction devices in Class III because the technological characteristics of the sharps needle destruction devices raise new types of safety and effectiveness questions when compared to conventional sharps disposal containers.

(Premarket Approval Applications (PMA) for Sharps Needle Destruction Devices; Final Guidance for Industry and FDA, March 2001).” The FDA also states that a label on an NDD may claim, “the device (NDD) serves as an alternative to or as an effective substitute for conventional sharps containers for disposal of contaminated sharps needles, if data demonstrate that the remaining needle nub is no longer a sharp.” OSHA recognizes that needleless systems and SESIPs are not available for all situations.

Moreover, there is a wide variety of devices available, and the device that most effectively reduces exposure can vary with the procedure. Employers must use their judgment in selecting appropriate engineering controls, and under NSPA, must consult with affected nonmanagerial employees,

In selecting controls that will eliminate or minimize exposure to its employees, an employer of course must take into account the full range of exposure, including exposure prior to the point of disposal. The legislative history of NSPA, to which you have referred, is fully consistent with this position.

The Joint Statement of Legislative Intent on Substitute to H.R.5178 states: To the extent that specific types of devices, such as catheter securement devices or needle destruction devices can reduce the risk of needlestick injuries, such devices could be appropriate components of an employer’s comprehensive exposure control plan.

Nevertheless, it is impossible for this legislation to recommend any one type of engineering control (106 Cong. Rec.p. H8676 (2000)). This language does not say that the use of NDDs is always or generally sufficient to bring employers into full compliance with the standard. It only says that to the extent that they reduce the risk of needlestick injuries, they can be appropriate components of an exposure control plan.

In this regard, the selection and use of NDDs may be most appropriate for clinical procedures where SESIPS or needleless systems are either not feasible or not commercially available (for example, certain procedures in geriatrics, pediatrics, and orthopaedics).

Where NDDs are used, they should be used in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. For example, the SharpX is not meant to be used in potentially explosive environments, or where flammable gases or liquids are stored or used, such as operating rooms and emergency rooms. Finally, your letter asserts that some SESIPs are ineffective.

You refer to an article describing a citation issued by the State of California. There are many types of SESIPs and needleless systems that are commercially available. The standard requires employers to implement the use of SESIPs that do not compromise worker or patient safety or the outcome of the medical procedure.

To meet the definition of a SESIP in the standard, a device must have a “built-in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.” See 1910.1030(b) (emphasis supplied). If a device that causes needlesticks to occur or blood to be emitted has been chosen, the device may not have been an appropriate selection.

As noted, the standard requires the employer to use engineering and work practice controls that will eliminate or minimize exposure, and to review the availability of controls at least annually as part of its exposure control plan review. Thus, the California citation alleged that the employer’s device did not meet the definition of a SESIP because it did not provide effective protection, and the article describing the citation states that there are many better, safer products on the market (May 23 letter, Tab 8).

  1. Issue #2: NDDs must submit product clearance to the FDA at a “level three” approval, which requires clinical data conclusively demonstrating the product’s safety and effectiveness.
  2. Level Three” approvals require the most stringent level of testing, and all instructions, marketing materials and labeling must be approved by the FDA.

Assuming that OSHA has been given the authority to institute a “hierarchy” of engineering controls, that “hierarchy” should be based on the classification system established by the FDA, the federal agency tasked with determining a medical device’s efficacy.

OSHA Response #2: The FDA, in a 1994 memorandum to manufacturers and initial distributors of sharps containers and destroyers used by health care professionals, stated that “if the type of sharps device submitted in (the) 510(k) submission is found to be not substantially equivalent (NSE) to a predicated device, your device will automatically be classified in Class III, in accordance with the requirements of section 513(f) of the Act, thereby requiring the submission of an application for premarket approval (PMA).” In short, FDA “Level Three” approval is required because NDDs are newer devices that are not substantially equivalent to a device manufactured before 1976.

Level Three approval does not imply that needle destruction devices afford greater protection against bloodborne pathogens than other engineering controls, such as needleless systems or SESIPs. Furthermore, the FDA 510(k) Submission Application allows the label for a medical device with sharps injury prevention features to state that it meets the OSHA bloodborne pathogens standard only if permitted by OSHA.

  • Issue #3: OSHA is only permitting Becton Dickinson to explain the use of its engineering controls; BioMed and other NDD manufacturers formally request the same opportunity.
  • OSHA Response #3: As we stated in our May 2002 meeting with you, we welcome BioMed or any other medical device manufacturer to educate our staff on the use of its products.

We have never restricted a manufacturer of a safety product from doing so. We welcome the opportunity for our staff to meet with device manufacturers and have had the pleasure of meeting with several companies that offer several different types of medical devices, personal protective equipment, training materials, and the like.

Issue #4: OSHA is apparently advising employers that OSHA is in the process of compiling a “report” concerning NDDs. OSHA Response #4: OSHA is not compiling a report on NDDs or any other engineering control. In conclusion, OSHA continues to categorize NDDs, and conventional sharps containers, as engineering controls for the disposal of contaminated needles.

NDDs are currently designed to be used only with standard syringes that present the risk of exposure during use and prior to disposal. The use of an NDD alone, therefore, will not be sufficient to meet the standard’s requirements where a different or an additional control, such as a needleless system or a SESIP appropriate for the procedure, is commercially available and feasible and will reduce exposure to a lower level.

Thank you for your interest in occupational safety and health. We hope you find this information helpful. OSHA requirements are set by statute, standards and regulations. Our interpretation letters explain these requirements and how they apply to particular circumstances, but they cannot create additional employer obligations.

This letter constitutes OSHA’s interpretation of the requirements discussed. Note that our enforcement guidance may be affected by changes to OSHA rules. Also, from time to time we update our guidance in response to new information. To keep apprized of such developments, you can consult OSHA’s website at http://www.osha.gov,

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What are engineering controls and workplace controls?

Course Content The use of engineering and work practice controls to reduce the opportunity for patient and healthcare worker exposure to potentially infectious material should be standard practice in all healthcare settings, not only in hospitals. Facilities are required to address and manage high-risk practices and procedures capable of causing healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) from bloodborne pathogens.

(updated guideline) Engineering controls such as sharps disposal containers, self-sheathing needles, and safer medical devices (sharps with engineered sharps injury protections and needleless systems) isolate or remove the hazard from the workplace. Work practice controls reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed (e.g., prohibiting recapping of needles by a two-handed technique).

Engineering and work practice controls are intended to eliminate or minimize employee exposure. They must be examined and maintained or replaced on a regular schedule to ensure their effectiveness. Engineering controls usually involve an object, such as a safer chemical, syringe with engineered safety protection, sharps container, or splash guard.

Work practice controls reduce risk by altering the way a task is performed. Work practice controls tell how to do the job safely, and should be described in written procedures. Engineering and work practice controls are designed to reduce risk of percutaneous, mucous membrane/non-intact skin or parenteral exposures of workers.

Percutaneous (through the skin) exposures can occur during handling, disassembly, disposal, and reprocessing of contaminated needles and other sharp objects, or via human bites, cuts, and abrasions. Activities that risk percutaneous exposures include manipulating contaminated needles and other sharp objects by hand, removing scalpel blades from holders, and removing needles from syringes.

Delaying or improperly disposing of sharps, leaving contaminated needles or sharp objects on counters or workspaces, or disposing of sharps in nonpuncture-resistant receptacles can lead to injury. Recapping contaminated needles and other sharp objects using a two-handed technique is a common cause of injury.

Percutaneous exposures can also occur when performing procedures where there is poor visualization—such as blind suturing, non-dominant hand positioned opposed or next to a sharp, and performing procedures where bone spicules or metal fragments are produced.

  1. Mucous membrane/non-intact skin exposures occur when there is direct blood or body fluids contact with the eyes, nose, mouth, or other mucous membranes.
  2. This can occur via contact with contaminated hands, contact with open skin lesions/dermatitis, and from splashes or sprays of blood or body fluids (e.g., during irrigation or suctioning).

Parenteral refers to a route of transmission or administration that involves piercing mucous membranes or the skin barrier through such events as needlesticks, human bites, cuts, and abrasions. A parenteral exposure occurs as a result of injection with infectious material, which can occur during administration of parenteral medication, sharing of blood monitoring devices such as glucometers, hemoglobinometers, lancets, and lancet platforms/pens, and infusion of contaminated blood products or fluids.

What is a common engineering control in confined spaces?

Ventilation is one of the most common engineering controls used in confined spaces. When ventilation is used to remove atmospheric contaminants from the confined space, the space should be. ventilated until the atmosphere is within the acceptable ranges.

What are engineering controls to prevent fall hazards?

Year after year, falls kill more construction workers on the job than any other hazard. About one construction worker dies from a fall each day at work. In the latest available data from 2018, about a quarter of these deaths (83 to be precise) were construction laborers.

  • Most fall fatalities occur from roofs, ladders and scaffolds.
  • Prevention of falls should, just like all occupational hazards, focus on the “hierarchy of controls.” The hierarchy of controls gives employers a clear path to reducing serious injuries and illnesses on construction jobsites,” says LHSFNA Management Co-Chairman Noel C.

Borck. “Following this safety framework can help employers prevent falls, which continue to be one of the biggest hazards across the construction industry.” The hierarchy of controls works by starting with the most effective strategies and, when those are not feasible, moving down the ladder to less effective strategies.

Elimination : Both studies and common sense tell us that the most effective way to prevent an injury is to remove the hazard in the first place. That is difficult to do when working from heights, since the height itself is the hazard. One option that can eliminate some time spent at heights is to do as much work as possible at ground level. For example, it is more productive and safer for workers to tie rebar cages at ground level and use a crane to lift them into place. Prefabrication and modular construction measures reduce the number of workers put at risk by working at heights. Substitution : The second option is substitution, which seeks to replace the hazard with a safer option. Ladders, a leading cause of fall injuries, can often be substituted with lifts. Another way to effectively substitute ladders for other options is to have construction plans specify that stairs be installed early on in a project, so workers don’t have to climb ladders to access upper floors. Some owners have even gone as far as declaring jobs to be entirely ladder-free.

Engineering controls: The third option is engineering controls, which involves using equipment or technology to reduce the risk. For fall prevention, this could mean installing guardrails to protect workers along roof edges. Hoists can reduce the risk associated with carrying materials up ladders. Ladder accessories to stabilize the ladder can also reduce risk. Workplace practices: This option includes changes to the way work is done to reduce exposure, such as rotating jobs to reduce the time any one worker is exposed. Adequate breaks guard against fatigue and allow workers to maintain situational awareness, which is important at all times, but especially when working at heights. Creating buddy systems, having a worker at the base of the ladder to hold it steady and empowering workers to ensure their fellow workers are working safely are all examples of workplace practices that can help reduce falls. Personal protective equipment (PPE): The least effective control is relying on personal protective equipment, such as a harness and lifeline, because each piece of equipment only protects one worker, unlike most measures farther up the hierarchy of controls. There are more ways for things to go wrong with PPE. The equipment may not be readily available (e.g., it got left in the truck). The harness may not be the right size or may not be worn properly because the worker was never trained to use it. The harness may not be tied off correctly, the lifeline could get tangled or be a tripping hazard or the line may not arrest your fall in time. For all of these reasons, PPE is the last resort and the last means of defense against falls to a lower level.

Annual Falls Stand-Down Rescheduled for September OSHA’s National Safety Stand-Down to Prevent Falls in Construction usually takes place in March, but was rescheduled this year due to COVID-19. This year’s Stand-Down will now take place September 14-18.

For tips and resources to help you participate in the campaign, check out www.stopconstructionfalls.org, With over 300 construction workers killed every year by falls, clearly there’s plenty of room for improvement. Following the hierarchy of controls could help contractors take a more proactive approach to preventing falls and make a big difference on jobsites.

LIUNA signatory contractors and other LIUNA affiliates can order several different fall prevention toolbox talks through the LHSFNA, including Fall Prevention: Guardrail Systems, Personal Fall Arrest Systems and Slips, Trips and Falls, These and other publications are available through the Fund’s online Publications Catalogue,

What is engineering control of physical hazards?

Administrative vs. engineering controls – Engineering controls reduce risk through physical means. Examples of engineering controls for physical hazards include:

Providing safety equipment to employees that reduces their exposure to the physical safety hazard Reduce noises and vibrations present in the workplace Place barriers between employees and physical hazards such as radiation or microwaves Provide proper ventilation and air conditioning for employees Insulate any surfaces that could be prone to extremes in temperature

Administrative controls reduce risk by changing work processes and activities to make them more safe. Some examples of administrative controls for physical safety hazards include:

Handling smaller quantities of dangerous and reactive chemicals Spending less time in areas of exposure Working away from noise when possible Providing employees with rest breaks away from physical hazards Training employees to recognize and avoid physical hazards

What is the difference between engineering control and administrative control?

Vacuum line protection – Vacuum systems (both centralized and stand-alone pumps) are commonly used to help researchers filter reagents and dispose of waste. It is very important to protect your vacuum system from chemical; and biohazards routinely used in research. Vacuum systems protect labs, building staff, and the environment from liquid contamination and dangerous aerosols.

House vacuum systems must be protected from chemicals by filters. Protect the vacuum lines and pump with a trap. Belts and pulleys on the pump must be guarded (covered). Avoid risk of implosion by using vacuum-rated glassware. Standard glassware may implode when subjected to vacuum.

* Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the employee and the hazard. Administrative controls are changes in work procedures with the goal of reducing the duration, frequency, and severity of exposure.

What is engineering vs admin control?

Control Strategies: Engineering, Administrative and PPE Once MSD risk factors have been identified and measured, the analyst needs to compose an appropriate control strategy. The goal of which is to increase the overlap between worker capabilities and task demands to improve the fit of the job with the worker.

  • Note: We’ve updated this topic — see for the latest version.
  • The creation of control options depends on the experience and imagination of the analyst.
  • Although specific solutions vary, there is a standard thought process that can be applied.
  • The analyst should first consider engineering solutions.
  • This involves a change in the physical features of the workplace.

When engineering solutions are not feasible, administrative controls offer methods to reduce the exposure of workers to the identified hazard. If administrative controls are not available, work practice controls should be considered and finally personal protective equipment (PPE).

The preferred method for controlling ergonomics hazards is through engineering techniques. When the design of the workplace reduces the magnitude of risk factors, the likelihood of injury/illness is lessened.Engineering controls might include changing the weight of objects, changing work surface heights, or purchasing lifting aids.

Administrative controls are workplace policy, procedures, and practices that minimize the exposure of workers to risk conditions. They are considered less effective than engineering controls in that they do not usually eliminate the hazard. Rather, they lessen the duration and frequency of exposure to the risk condition.

Administrative controls are applied when the cost or practicalities of engineering controls are prohibitive. Example administrative controls include rest breaks, additional employees performing a lifting task, and housekeeping for tools and work areas. The least effective controls are PPE as the worker is still exposed to the risk factor.

Some examples might include providing knee pads for workers laying carpet, or anti-vibration gloves for workers using powered hand tools. Ergoweb Enterprise™ is a cloud-based ergonomics management software that allows companies to control their ergonomics programs and fulfill EHS regulation standards.

What are physical or engineering controls?

Engineering controls – If you can’t eliminate the hazards or substitute safer alternatives, engineering controls are the next best options. These involve using work equipment or other means to prevent workers from being exposed to a hazard. Engineering controls are physical changes to the workplace and may include equipment guarding, guardrails, traffic control lanes and barriers between vehicles and pedestrians, and many other options. For example, while working at heights cannot be avoided in construction, guardrails can be installed to prevent falls from happening. Guardrails are an example of an engineering control.

  • Is hand washing an engineering control?

    Nurse Jennifer completed the incident report with her Charge Nurse and immediately was sent to the lab for a blood draw and rapid HIV test. She received her HBV series five years ago when she began nursing school. Was she still covered against HBV? What is the blood test for HIV? How soon does HIV testing show results? Jennifer suffered emotionally throughout the rest of her shift until the answers came.

    Was she wearing gloves when she took the blood specimen? Didn’t she always? Now she couldn’t remember because she wasn’t consistent about PPE use. Engineering controls are devices that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen hazard from the workplace (OSHA, 2019a). Controlling the environmental hazards are part of the directive to decrease the potential for the spread of bloodborne pathogens and other potentially infectious agents.

    The various environmental controls include:

    • Hand washing, that sends pathogens on the worker’s hands down the drain and out of the workplace
    • Elimination of hazardous materials from the workplace, such as the replacement of a hazardous chemical with a safer one, or needleless systems for injection
    • Devices that contain the hazard, such as specimen containers, safety sharps, sharps disposal containers, and red bags

    Engineering controls, including facilities for hand washing, must be maintained or replaced on a regular schedule to ensure their effectiveness. When handwashing facilities are not available, an antiseptic hand cleanser should be provided. Hands must be washed after gloves are removed or any time there is skin contact with blood or other body fluids.

    Are engineering controls physical changes?

    Engineering controls are physical changes to the work area or process that effectively minimize a worker’s exposure to hazards.