What Is Safety Valve Theory In Indian History

Who is known as safety valve of India?

Question: Who developed the safety valve theory for the Indian National Congress? Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai developed the ‘Safety-valve theory. ‘ ‘Unhappy India’ and ‘Punjabi’ are two books written by Lala Lajpat Rai.

What is the safety valve theory of the frontier?

F rederick Jackson Turner Frontier Thesis “The emergence of western history as an important field of scholarship can best be traced to the famous paper Frederick Jackson Turner delivered at a meeting of the American Historical Association in 1893. It was entitled “The Significance of the Frontier in American History.” The “Turner thesis” or “frontier thesis,” as his argument quickly became known, shaped both popular and scholarly views of the West (and of much else) for two generations.

  1. Turner stated his thesis simply.
  2. The settlement of the West by white people – “the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward” – was the central story of American history.
  3. The process of westward expansion had transformed a desolate and savage land into modem civilization.

It had also continually renewed American ideas of democracy and individualism and had, therefore, shaped not just the West but the nation as a whole. “What the Mediterranean Sea was to the Greeks, breaking the bonds of custom, offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities, that, and more, the ever retreating frontier has been to the United States.” The Turner thesis shaped the writing of American history for a generation, and it shaped the writing of western American history for even longer.

Turner thesis text Turner biography from The West by PBS

Turner believed that historians up to that time had not devoted sufficient research to what he termed in an earlier essay “the fundamental, dominating fact in United States history,” the territorial expansion from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Central to Turner’s frontier thesis is the notion that the development of the American frontier helped to shape not only the character of the American people but also the nature of its institutions.

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More specifically, Turner claimed that traits and characteristics which developed during the Nineteenth-Century push from East to West – individualism, nationalism, mobility, egalitarianism – not only deviated from the perceived standard American cultural attitudes which prevailed at the time, but eventually came to dominate the formation of the American character.

With his announcement of the “closing” of the frontier, moreover, Turner implied that the nation would be forced to undergo a painful transition, from a perception of America as a land of endless boundaries, to one which required Americans to accept that their nation was finally a closed-space world, replete with the limitations inherent therein.

The Turner Theses
Thesis Synopsis Turner Quote
The Frontier The frontier thesis is the assertion that the American character, including such traits as democracy and materialism, derived from the frontier experience. “The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement, explain American development.”
The Safety Valve The safety valve thesis is the assertion that the frontier, as a place of opportunity and escape, defused social discontent in America. “So long as free land exists, the opportunity for a competency exists, and economic power secures political power.”
Successive Frontiers Turner said that in the development of any frontier area, one phase of economic and social development followed another in distinct stages. This is the concept of successive frontiers. “Stand at Cumberland Gap and watch the procession of civilization, marching single file-the buffalo following the trail to the salt springs, the Indian, the fur-trader and hunter, the cattle-raiser, the pioneer farmer-and the frontier has passed by. Stand at South Pass in the Rockies a century later and see the same procession with wider intervals between.”

http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/isern/103/turner.htm Turner’s thesis can be considered:

as a reflection of the 1890s, as a statement of American expansionism, as an idea in American thought, as an historical philosophy, and as the site of debate over the meaning of the “frontier” in American culture.

Who gave the safety valve theory?

Option C Solution: Safety valve theory was given by Lala Lajpat Rai in 1916 in his book ‘Young India’.

What is the objective of safety valve?

The primary purpose of a safety valve is the pro- tection of life, property and environment. A safe- ty valve is designed to open and relieve excess pressure from vessels or equipment and to reclose and prevent the further release of fluid after normal conditions have been restored.

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What is another name for safety valve?

Technical terms – In the, and, and industries, the term relief valve is associated with the terms pressure relief valve ( PRV ), pressure safety valve ( PSV ) and :

  • Pressure relief valve (PRV) or Pressure Release valve (PRV) or pressure safety valve (PSV): The difference is that PSVs have a manual lever to activate the valve in case of emergency. Most PRVs are spring operated. At lower pressures some use a diaphragm in place of a spring. The oldest PRV designs use a weight to seal the valve.
  • Set pressure: When the system pressure increases to this value, the PRV opens. The accuracy of the set pressure may follow guidelines set by the (ASME).
  • Relief valve (RV): A valve is used on a liquid service, which opens proportionally as the increasing pressure overcomes the spring pressure.
  • (SV): Used in gas service. Most SVs are full lift or snap-acting, in that they pop completely open.
  • Safety relief valve (SRV): A relief valve that can be used for gas or liquid service. However, the set pressure will usually only be accurate for one type of fluid at a time.
  • (POSRV, PORV, POPRV): A device that relieves by remote command from a pilot valve which is connected to the upstream system pressure.
  • Low-pressure safety valve (LPSV): An automatic system that relieves by the static pressure of a gas. The relieving pressure is small and near the atmospheric pressure.
  • Vacuum pressure safety valve (VPSV): An automatic system that relieves by the static pressure of a gas. The relieving pressure is small, negative, and near the atmospheric pressure.
  • Low and vacuum pressure safety valve (LVPSV): An automatic system that relieves by the static pressure of a gas. The relieving pressure is small, negative, or positive, and near the atmospheric pressure.
  • Pressure vacuum release valve (PVRV): A combination of vacuum pressure and a relief valve in one housing. Used on storage tanks for liquids to prevent or overpressure.
  • Snap acting: The opposite of modulating, refers to a valve that “pops” open. It snaps into a full lift in milliseconds. Usually accomplished with a skirt on the disc so that the fluid passing the seat suddenly affects a larger area and creates more lifting force.
  • Modulating: Opens in proportion to the overpressure.

What is the frontier thesis explanation?

‘Turner Thesis’ What is the frontier thesis? Turner asserts that the settlement of the west had a considerable impact on American history ; in fact, the frontier’s influence was so significant that it was inseparably linked to America’s identity.

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What is the difference between safety valve and release valve?

Bottomline – A few key points help us understand the safety valve vs pressure relief valve, Safety valves are designed to relieve pressure in a system when it gets too high, while relief valves are designed to relieve pressure when it gets too low. Safety valves are usually set to open at a specific pressure, while relief valves are generally open at a particular vacuum.

What is the purpose of safety valve in aviation?

Discussion – Aircraft engines become more efficient with increase in altitude, burning less fuel for a given airspeed. In addition, by flying above weather and associated turbulence, the flight is smoother and the aircraft less fatigued. Crews will therefore normally fly as close to the aircraft’s Cruise Ceiling as they can depending on flight rules and any other constraints such as the aircraft oxygen system.

  1. In order to be able to fly at high attitudes, the aircraft needs to be pressurised so that the crew and passengers can breathe without the need for supplemental oxygen.
  2. The cabin and cargo holds (or baggage compartments) on most aircraft are contained within a sealed unit which is capable of containing air under pressure higher than the Ambient Pressure outside of the aircraft.

from the turbine engines is used to pressurise the cabin and air is released from the cabin by an Outflow Valve. By using a cabin pressure regulator, to manage the flow of air through the outflow valve, the pressure within the aircraft can be increased or decreased as required, either to maintain a set Differential Pressure or a set,

In practice, as an aircraft climbs, for the comfort of the passengers, the pressurisation system will gradually increase the cabin altitude and the at the same time. If the aircraft continues to climb once the maximum differential pressure is reached, the differential pressure will be maintained while the cabin altitude climbs.

The maximum cruise altitude will be limited by the need to keep the cabin altitude at or below 8,000 ft. A safety valve:

acts as a relief valve, releasing air from the cabin to prevent the cabin pressure from exceeding the maximum differential pressure, acts a vacuum relief valve, allowing air into the cabin when the ambient pressure exceeds the cabin pressure, and acts as a dump valve, allowing the crew to dump cabin air manually.

A Cabin Altimeter, Differential Pressure Gauge, and Cabin Rate of Climb gauge help the crew to monitor the aircraft pressurisation.