What Is The Safety Distance Between Cars
Sometimes Three Seconds Is Not Enough – The three-second rule is recommended for passenger vehicles during ideal road and weather conditions. Slow down and increase your following distance even more during adverse weather conditions or when visibility is reduced.

  • Also increase your following distance if you are driving a larger vehicle or towing a trailer.
  • Distractions, such as texting, reaching for a drink or glancing at a navigation device, also play a role in rear-end collisions.
  • Even if you use the three-second rule, you may not have time to react to a hazard if you are distracted.

It is another reason why you should avoid distractions while driving.3

What is the safest distance between two cars?

Road rules: safe distance – Safe following distances. Safe following distances may vary depending on the conditions, the type of vehicle being driven, and the speed at which the vehicle is travelling. As a general rule, when following a vehicle, you should travel three seconds behind the vehicle in front to provide enough time to avoid a crash.

How much distance is the 2 second rule?

Subtracting 10% from your speed gives the distance travelled in two seconds e.g., 70mph -10% = 63m. Thus; at 70mph you need to be at least 63 metres behind the vehicle in front to achieve a safe 2 second overall stopping distance.

What is the meaning of safe distance?

Meaning. far enough away from danger to be safe.

What is the safety distance between your vehicle and the vehicle in front of you in UAE?

Some tips on Defensive Driving – Always maintain a safe distance from vehicles in front of you. When driving on the highway or in traffic, it’s important to keep a distance of at least 2 seconds between your vehicle and the one in front of you. This provides a safety cushion around your car and gives you enough time to react if the other driver suddenly brakes or makes a sudden turn.

  1. Always be on the lookout ahead and around your vehicle to identify potential hazards such as for pedestrians, cyclists, children and other vehicles.
  2. Typically, a car has 4 blind spots: •Front mirror blind spot •Wing mirror blind spot •Rear side blind spot •A-pillar blind spot Even though modern vehicles come with backup cameras and advanced mirrors, it is still necessary to be aware of your blind spots so you can use your mirrors to monitor the movement of other vehicles.

The UAE can experience extreme temperatures and weather conditions, so it’s important to be aware of the weather when driving. For example, during rainy weather, you may need to reduce your speed and increase the following distance to account for decreased visibility and slippery roads.

  1. While driving in fog, make sure to take the necessary precautions like switching on your fog lights, not changing lanes unnecessarily, and putting on dipped lights so as to avoid dazzling the oncoming traffic.
  2. Also know how to manage speed according to the weather and road conditions.
  3. For example, the average speed limit to be followed in fog, as advised by the Abu Dhabi Police, is 80 km/hour and not more.

This means watching for other drivers who may be distracted, impaired, or otherwise driving unsafely. By recognising potential hazards, you can take steps to avoid them and protect yourself and your passengers. Also keep an eye out for the areas in which you’re driving.

  1. In the UAE, there are designated school and residential zones where your speed should not exceed 40km/hour.
  2. Before driving a vehicle, make sure that it’s equipped with an emergency kit that includes a first aid kit, including a seatbelt cutter, water, a flashlight with batteries, duct tape, and a spare tire.

It’s also extremely important to get a crash course on how to change tires, respond in the event of an accident or car breakdown, perform basic first aid and know the necessary emergency numbers – 999 for the Police, 998 for Ambulance, and 997 for the Fire Department in the UAE.

  1. While driving, it is extremely crucial to always keep your eyes on the road.
  2. Without fail, avoid any and all distractions while driving.
  3. A fine worth Dh 800 and 4 black points will be imposed on motorists for using phones, eating, fixing make-up, smoking, etc., while driving.
  4. Completely refrain from driving if you are under the influence of alcohol or medicines or are fatigued.

If you feel like you need a break from driving, stop the car in a permissible area and get that rest. Remember, you can get a second appointment, you cannot get a second life. Ultimately, defensive driving is about taking responsibility for your own safety on the road.

What is the purpose of the 2 second rule?

The 2-second rule – Under normal conditions, the 2-second rule is an easy way to make sure you’ve allowed enough following distance between your vehicle and the vehicle in front, no matter what speed you’re travelling at. To check if you’re travelling 2 seconds behind the vehicle in front:

watch the vehicle in front of you pass a landmark – such as a sign, tree or power pole – at the side of the road as it passes the landmark, start counting ‘one thousand and one, one thousand and 2′ if you pass the landmark before you finish saying those 8 words, you’re following too closely – slow down, pick another landmark and repeat the words to make sure you’ve increased your following distance.

The 2-second rule

How do you calculate stopping distance?

What is thinking distance? – Thinking distance is the distance that you travel in your car from the point of detecting a hazard to the point of beginning to brake or swerve. Thinking time tends to be between 0.5 to 2 seconds, although this can increase if the driver is tired, distracted, or on medication.

What is 5 car lengths?

In good daylight, you must be able to read a vehicle number plate from a distance of 20 metres (or from a distance of 20.5 metres for old style number plates). If you want to do your own number plate test, when walking down a street or in a car park, 20 metres is about 5 car lengths.

You must also have an adequate field of vision and a visual acuity of at least decimal 0.5 (6/12) on the Snellen scale (with glasses or contact lenses, if necessary), using both eyes together or, one eye only if the driver only has sight in one eye. If you need glasses or contact lenses to drive, you must wear them at all times when driving (see Rule 92 of the Highway Code).

It is an offence not to do so, and may invalidate your motor insurance. It is a good idea to keep a spare set of glasses in the glove compartment.

What is the 2 to 3 second rule?

Why Is Following Distance So Important? – It’s vital to leave enough space between your vehicle and the vehicle in front of you to avoid many types of accidents. Rear-end collisions can easily result in traumatic brain injuries and various other catastrophic injuries, many of which can pose lifelong complications for victims.

  • Eeping simple rules in mind, like the three-second rule and one-second rule, can potentially help you avoid a severe accident.
  • Hopefully, these rules can reduce your risk of causing a motor vehicle accident.
  • Remember to be flexible in using these rules at higher speeds and strive to maintain safe following distances wherever you drive.

Unfortunately, you cannot always predict how other drivers will behave near your vehicle despite your best efforts.

What is the safe separation distance?

Separation distances – One of the most effective ways of keeping yourself and other road users safe is to keep a safe separation distance between you and the vehicle in front: this will allow you to stop in time if the vehicle in front stops suddenly. Your stopping distance depends on lots of factors, including

the speed at which you’re travellingthe road and weather conditionsthe condition of your vehicle’s brakes and tyresthe weight of your vehicle: HGVs usually take longer to stop than a car would in the same conditions.

In good, dry conditions, leave a gap of at least one metre for each mph of your speed or at least a 2-second gap between you and the vehicle in front. Use a fixed point, like a road sign, to measure the time gap between your vehicle and the one in front.

it might be harder to see cyclists and motorcyclists in bad weather or heavy trafficwindy weather might blow them off course.

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Allow them extra space in these conditions. : Defensive HGV driving

What does minimum safety distance mean?

29 CFR 1910.217(c)(3)(iii)(e) : The safety distance (D s ) from the sensing field to the point of operation shall be greater than the distance determined by the following formula: Safety Distance (D s ) D s = 63 inches/second x T s where: D s = minimum safety distance (inches); 63 inches/second = hand speed constant; and T s = stopping time of the press measured at approximately 90° position of crankshaft rotation (seconds).29 CFR 1910.217(c)(3)(viii)(c) : The safety distance (D m ) between the two-hand trip and the point of operation shall be greater than the distance determined by the following formula: Safety Distance(D m ) D m = 63 inches / second x T m where: D m = minimum safety distance (inches): 63 inches / second = hand speed constant; and T m = die closure after it has been tripped (seconds).

Safety Distance Chart
T s D s T s D s
.055 3½” .317 20″
.063 4″ .325 20½”
.072 4½” .333 21″
.079 5′ .341 21½”
.087 5½” .349 22″
.095 6″ .357 22½”
.103 6½” .365 23″
.111 7″ .373 23½”
.119 7½” .380 24″
.126 8″ .388 24½”
.134 8½” .396 25″
.142 9″ .404 25½”
.150 9½” .412 26″
.158 10″ .420 26½”
.166 10½” .428 27″
.174 11″ .436 27½”
.182 11½” .444 28″
.190 12″ .452 28½”
.198 12½” .460 29″
.206 13″ .468 29½”
.214 13½” .476 30″
.222 14″ .484 30½”
.230 14½” .492 31″
.238 15″ .500 31½”
.246 15½” .507 32″
.253 16″ .515 32½”
.261 16½” .523 33″
.269 17″ .531 33½”
.277 17½” .539 34″
.285 18″ .547 34½”
.293 18½” .555 35″
.301 19″ .563 35½”
.309 19½” .571 36″


The minimum safety distance is defined as the minimum distance from the light curtain’s plane of light to the closest hazard or danger point where the operator could reach into the hazard. This minimum safety distance is based on the stopping ability of the machine and a hand speed constant.

  • When the minimum safety distance is calculated, several other factors must be taken into account, which are not included in the in the OSHA formula.
  • These factors include the total system response time, the minimum object sensitivity of the presence sensing device, and the hand or object speed.
  • The total system response time includes the stopping time of the machine under worse case conditions, response time of the control system, response time of the presence sensing device as stated by the manufacturer, the response time of the interface, and, if applicable, additional time allowed for the brake monitor to compensate for variations in normal stopping time.

Another factor includes the penetration distance (D pf ), which is based on the light curtain’s MOS (minimum object sensitivity). The following formula is used to compute the minimum safety distance (Ds) on mechanical power presses to meet the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) B11.1 Press Safety Standard: ANSI Minimum Safety Distance (D s ) D s = K x (T s + T c + T r + T bm ) + D pf where: K = Hand speed constant (63 inches/second) T s = Stop time of equipment measured at the final control element T c = Response time of the control system T r = Response time of the presence sensing device and its interface T bm = Additional time allowed for the brake monitor to compensate for variations in normal stopping time D pf = The added distance due to the penetration depth factor (MOS).

Note: If the channel blanking feature is used on light curtains, additional safety distance must be enforced based on the number of channels blanked. When determining the safety distance, a portable or built-in stop-time measuring unit must be used to check the stopping time (T s ) of the machine. Stop-Time Measurement Device When determining the safety distance, a portable or built-in stop-time measuring unit must be used to check the stopping time (T s ) of the machine.

The STM (stop-time measurement) device measures the time it takes a machine to stop after a signal is given. It is mainly used on reciprocating (stroking or cycling) machines, such as mechanical and hydraulic presses or press brakes. With optional accessories, it can also be used on machines that rotate, such as lathes, mills, and drills.

Industry uses this type of device to find the stopping time of a machine before installing safeguarding devices such as a two-hand control or a presence sensing device. The stopping time measured by the STM device during the hazardous portion of the cycle is used in the OSHA or ANSI formulas to calculate the safety distance.

The safety distance is then used to establish the location of the safeguarding device in relation to the nearest hazard. This device can also be used to periodically check the machine’s stopping time to ensure that the current safety distance corresponds to the current condition of the machine’s stopping ability.

What is the meaning of safe zone?

Definitions of safety zone. a curbed area in a roadway from which traffic is excluded ; provides safe area for pedestrians. synonyms: safety island, safety isle, traffic island. type of: island. a zone or area resembling an island.

What is the distance between you and the car in front?

How to check the two-second rule – The driver of the following car must be at least 2 seconds behind the vehicle in front:

The driver is alert The car is in good condition, good tyres, good brakes The weather is dry.

Take note of the vehicle in front when he passes a post or bridge support, and then count 2 seconds. You should not arrive at the same spot before the 2 seconds are up. If you are too close, then carefully drop back and retest the gap. If you are tired or driving a less than perfect car, or the weather is bad, then your 2-second rule should be extended to 4 seconds or more.

Always know your limitations, and remember that: “Only a fool breaks the 2-second rule.” Multiple collisions or pile-ups are caused by driving too close and too fast, which leads to drivers being unable to brake in time. You can avoid this by looking well forward, checking how the traffic is performing, getting clues from large vehicles, looking for buses pulling in and out, taxis stopping and turning, junctions and pedestrians.

Maintain that safe separation distance as much as you can. It is always better to drive defensively, allow yourself enough time for the journey, and arrive alive, but maybe a bit late, than to not arrive at all. TOO CLOSE IS TOO LATE. Need to start revising for your Theory Test? We’ve developed a range of products to suit your revision preferences, whether that’s an app (ours is award-winning by the way!), or a full online system with access from any device, anywhere, anytime.

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What is the distance between cars in Dubai?

Braking distance depends on attentiveness, road surface, weather conditions and the state of the vehicle. – Powered by automated translation DUBAI // The safe following distance for vehicles is measured as a three-second gap. Motorists are advised to select a fixed object on the road ahead such as a signpost or a tree.

  • When the vehicle ahead passes the object, they should slowly count, “One one thousand, two one thousand, three one thousand”.
  • If the motorist reaches the object before completing the count, he is too close to the vehicle in front.
  • The three-second gap gives drivers the time and distance to react to trouble.

The safe gap between vehicles is a combination of thinking time and braking distance, since it depends on the driver’s attentiveness, road surface, weather conditions and the state of the vehicle, according to road safety codes published by the UK Department for Transport and Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency.

  • At 80 kilometres an hour, the typical stopping distance would be about 53 metres, or 13 car lengths, and at 112kph it would go up to 96m, or 24 car lengths.
  • An average car length is four metres.
  • The US department of transportation’s advice follows a similar path with the warning that if a vehicle is following another too closely, even if the driver following is attentive, he will not be able to avoid a collision if the driver in front brakes suddenly.

The tips prescribed are to keep a three-second gap or 74 metres for cars travelling at 55mph, or 88kph and 102m for cars at 121kph. The three-second count doubles in case of bad weather, experts said. Those driving large vehicles should follow a four-second count to stay safe.

How much of a following distance should you keep with cars in front of you in Florida?

Driving Too Slowly is also Against the Law – Drive with the flow of traffic (within the speed limit). You should not drive so slowly that you block other vehicles moving at normal, safe speeds. You can be issued a ticket for driving too slowly.

What is the closest distance your vehicle may be parked to a vehicle entrance?

Safe and legal parking – Before you decide on a place to park, there are a few rules to keep in mind. These rules are for the safety of pedestrians and other road users. Make sure you’re legally parked:

  • Look for any signs or road markings that may stop you from parking.
  • Don’t park closer than 1 metre from any vehicle entrance.
  • Don’t park closer than 6 metres from any pedestrian crossing or intersection.
  • Always park on the left side of the road (unless parking in a one-way street).

Choose a safe position to park:

  • Park parallel to the road (unless signs or road markings allow angle parking).
  • Make sure you’re as far left as possible.
  • If you’re stopping in a high-speed area (which may not have a kerb), try and move as far off the road as possible.
  • If it’s dark, check your car is visible to other road users on the side of the road. Try to park where there are street lights or turn on your park lights.
  • When you’re parking on a hill and facing downhill, angle your front wheel towards the kerb. When facing uphill, angle you wheels away from the kerb.

What is the 4 sec rule?

You should apply the four-second rule when it’s wet, frosty or when you are towing a trailer. The four-second rule means that you leave four seconds between you and the vehicle in front. It gives you more time to react and more time to stop.

What are the 3 stopping distances?

Vehicle speed, crash risk, thinking and braking time – Speed is a critical factor in all road crashes and casualties. The faster a vehicle is travelling, the longer it takes to stop, and the greater the risk of a crash. Speed and stopping distances don’t increase at the same rate. Small increases in speed result in bigger increases in stopping distances. In this fact page we will cover:

How vehicle speed is related to stopping distancesThe difference between thinking and braking timeWhy official estimates for stopping distances may be wrong

Stopping distances include the distance travelled while the driver notices a hazard and applies the brakes (thinking distance), and while the vehicle comes to a full stop from its initial speed (braking distance). The government’s official estimates of stopping distances for cars are shown below. Brake asked TRL to provide evidence on the time taken by car drivers to perceive, recognise and react to emergency situations. The thinking distances given in the government’s estimate of stopping distances are based on a reaction time of 0.67 seconds, which assumes the driver is alert, concentrating and not impaired.

Driving when tired, distracted or impaired significantly increases reaction times, so these thinking distances should be thought of as minimums. TRL referred to academic literature and concluded that the average thinking time is 1.5 seconds − more than double the 0.67 seconds set out in the Highway Code.

This means that average total stopping distance − including thinking and braking distance − is an extra 2.75 car lengths (11 metres) at 30mph and an extra 3.75 car lengths (15 metres) at 40mph compared with the distances used in the Code. This difference rises to an additional 6.25 car lengths (25 metres) at 70mph. Thinking distance is the distance a vehicle travels during the time it takes for the driver to perceive a hazard, recognise that action needs to be taken and decide what the necessary action is, before applying pressure to the brakes. Thinking distance varies from driver to driver, and can be influenced by a number of factors, including driver fatigue, distraction and visual impairment.

  • Braking distance depends on how fast a vehicle is travelling before the brakes are applied, and is proportional to the square of the initial speed.
  • This means that even small increases in speed mean significantly longer braking distances.
  • Braking distances are much longer for larger and heavier vehicles, and in wet or icy conditions.

At higher speeds a driver has less time to react to a hazard on the road ahead of them. A car can travel a long way in the few seconds it takes a driver to notice and react to any danger. Slowing down gives the driver more time to avoid a crash. Test your knowledge with our stopping distances calculator,

What is minimum stopping distance?

The minimum stopping distance of a car when it ismoving with 50 km/h is 2 m. If the speed is100 km/h then the minimum stopping distance willbe (assuming retardation force is constant always)

What is the distance rule formula?

Video transcript – In this video, we’re going to learn how to take the distance between any two points in our x, y coordinate plane, and we’re going to see, it’s really just an application of the Pythagorean theorem. So let’s start with an example. Let’s say I have the point, I’ll do it in a darker color so we can see it on the graph paper.

Let’s say I have the point 3 comma negative 4. So if I were to graph it, I’d go 1, 2, 3, and then I’d go down 4.1, 2, 3, 4, right there, is 3 comma negative 4. And let’s say I also have the point 6 comma 0. So 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and then there’s no movement in the y-direction. We’re just sitting on the x-axis.

The y-coordinate is 0, so that’s 6 comma 0. And what I want to figure out is the distance between these two points. How far is this blue point away from this orange point? And at first, you’re like, gee, Sal, I don’t think I’ve ever seen anything about how to solve for a distance like this.

And what are you even talking about the Pythagorean theorem? I don’t see a triangle there! And if you don’t see a triangle, let me draw it for you. Let me draw this triangle right there, just like that. Let me actually do several colors here, just to really hit the point home. So there is our triangle.

And you might immediately recognize this is a right triangle. This is a right angle right there. The base goes straight left to right, the right side goes straight up and down, so we’re dealing with a right triangle. So if we could just figure out what the base length is and what this height is, we could use the Pythagorean theorem to figure out this long side, the side that is opposite the right angle, the hypotenuse.

This right here, the distance is the hypotenuse of this right triangle. Let me write that down. The distance is equal to the hypotenuse of this right triangle. So let me draw it a little bit bigger. So this is the hypotenuse right there. And then we have the side on the right, the side that goes straight up and down.

And then we have our base. Now, how do we figure out- let’s call this d for distance. That’s the length of our hypotenuse. How do we figure out the lengths of this up and down side and the base side right here? So let’s look at the base first. What is this distance? You could even count it on this graph paper, but here, where x is equal to- let me do it in the green.

  • Here, we’re at x is equal to 3 and here we’re at x is equal to 6, right? We’re just moving straight right.
  • This is the same distance as that distance right there.
  • So to figure out that distance, it’s literally the end x point.
  • And you could actually go either way, because you’re going to square everything, so it doesn’t matter if you get negative numbers, so the distance here is going to be 6 minus 3, right? 6 minus 3.

That’s this distance right here, which is equal to 3. So we figured out the base. And to just remind ourselves, that is equal to the change in x. That was equal to your finishing x minus your starting x.6 minus 3. This is our delta x. Now, by the same exact line of reasoning, this height right here is going to be your change in y.

  • Up here, you’re at y is equal to 0.
  • That’s kind of where you finish.
  • That’s your higher y point.
  • And over here, you’re at y is equal to negative 4.
  • So change in y is equal to 0 minus negative 4.
  • I’m just taking the larger y-value minus the smaller y-value, the larger x-value minus the smaller x-value.
  • But you’re going to see we’re going to square it in a second, so even if you did it the other way around, you’d get a negative number, but you’d still get the same answer, so this is equal to 4.

So this side is equal to 4. You can even count it on the graph paper if you like. And this side is equal to 3. And now we can do the Pythagorean theorem. This distance is the distance squared. Be careful. The distance squared is going to be equal to this delta x squared, the change in x squared plus the change in y squared.

  • This is nothing fancy.
  • Sometimes people will call this the distance formula.
  • It’s just the Pythagorean theorem.
  • This side squared plus that side squared is equal to hypotenuse squared, because this is a right triangle.
  • So let’s apply it with these numbers, the numbers that we have at hand.
  • So the distance squared is going to be equal to delta x squared is 3 squared plus delta y squared plus 4 squared, which is equal to 9 plus 16, which is equal to 25.

So the distance is equal to- let me write that- d squared is equal to 25. d, our distance, is equal to- you don’t want to take the negative square root, because you can’t have a negative distance, So it’s only the principal root, the positive square root of 25, which is equal to 5.

So this distance right here is 5. Or if we look at this distance right here, that was the original problem. How far is this point from that point? It is 5 units away. So what you’ll see here, they call it the distance formula, but it’s just the Pythagorean theorem. And just so you’re exposed to all of the ways that you’ll see the distance formula, sometimes people will say, oh, if I have two points, if I have one point, let’s call it x1 and y1, so that’s just a particular point.

And let’s say I have another point that is x2 comma y2. Sometimes, you’ll see this formula, that the distance- you’ll see it in different ways. But you’ll see that the distance is equal to- and it looks as though there’s this really complicated formula, but I want you to see that this is really just the Pythagorean theorem.

You see that the distance is equal to x2 minus x1 minus x1 squared plus y2 minus y1 squared. You’ll see this written in a lot of textbooks as the distance formula. And it’s a complete waste of your time to memorize it because it’s really just the Pythagorean theorem. This is your change in x. And it really doesn’t matter which x you pick to be first or second, because even if you get the negative of this value, when you square it, the negative disappears.

This right here is your change in y. So it’s just saying that the distance squared- remember, if you square both sides of this equation, the radical will disappear and this will be the distance squared is equal to this expression squared, delta x squared, change in x- delta means change in- delta x squared plus delta y squared.

  1. I don’t want to confuse you.
  2. Delta y just means change in y.
  3. I should have probably said that earlier in the video.
  4. But let’s apply it to a couple more, and I’ll just pick some points at random.
  5. Let’s say I have the point, let’s see, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
  6. Negative 6 comma negative 4.
  7. And let’s say I want to find the distance between that and 1 comma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and the point 1 comma 7, so I want to find this distance right here.

So it’s the exact same idea. We just use the Pythagorean theorem. You figure out this distance, which is our change in x, this distance, which is our change in y. This distance squared plus this distance squared is going to equal that distance squared. So let’s do it.

So our change in x, you just take- you know, it doesn’t matter. In general, you want to take the larger x-value minus the smaller x-value, but you could do it either way. So we could write the distance squared is equal to- what’s our change in x? So let’s take the larger x minus the smaller x, 1 minus negative 6.1 minus negative 6 squared plus the change in y.

The larger y is here. It’s 7.7 minus negative 4.7 minus negative 4 squared. And I just picked these numbers at random, so they’re probably not going to come out too cleanly. So we get that the distance squared is equal to 1 minus negative 6. That is 7, 7 squared, and you’ll even see it over here, if you count it.

  1. You go, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
  2. That’s that number right here.
  3. That’s what your change in x is.
  4. Plus 7 minus negative 4.
  5. That’s 11.
  6. That’s this distance right here, and you can count it on the blocks.
  7. We’re going up 11.
  8. We’re just taking 7 minus negative 4 to get a distance of 11.
  9. So plus 11 squared is equal to d squared.

So let me just take the calculator out. So the distance if we take 7 squared plus 11 squared is equal to 170, that distance is going to be the square root of that, right? d squared is equal to 170. So let’s take the square root of 170 and we get 13.0, roughly 13.04.

What is the rule of thumb for stopping distance?

One of the most important formulas during your driver’s license training is the calculation of the stopping distance, This consists of reaction distance and braking distance. In this article we explain what the braking distance is and how the calculation of a “normal braking” and a ” hazard braking” differ from each other.

You can easily calculate both yourself with a rule of thumb. The braking distance is defined as the distance from the start of braking to the point where your car stops. How long this takes depends on many factors such as the grip of the tyres on the road or the braking system of the vehicle. You can calculate the braking distance with a simple rule of thumb.

Although it does not take into account the above factors, it is accurate enough to calculate the braking distance in general. However, it is important to know that there are two different types of calculation: A distinction is made between “normal braking” and “hazard braking”,

As already mentioned above, the following rule of thumb serves as orientation, Please always note that the actual braking distance always depends on the road surface, the condition of the road, the vehicle and the amount of braking. For example, the braking distance can be significantly increased by ice on the road, a bad condition of the brakes or worn tyres and can deviate greatly from the calculated result.

You can calculate the braking distance with the following rule of thumb: Braking distance (m) = (speed in km/h : 10) x (speed in km/h : 10) An example: At 50 km/h you stop your car after 25 m during normal braking, because (50 km/h : 10) x (50 km/h : 10)= 25 m In the event of a hazard braking situation, the formula can be modified slightly. The brake pedal is depressed with full force during a hazard braking manoeuvre. Here the calculated braking distance is divided by 2. This results in the following formula: / 2 = Braking distance Hazard braking (m) Example: If the vehicle is moving at 50 km/h, the stopping distance for hazard braking is 12.5 m, because: : 2 = 12.5 m. In a hazard braking situation, the calculated braking distance is divided by 2. You don’t just want to cramm your driver’s license knowledge into theory? Find your driving school near you now and soon get behind the wheel yourself.

How many seconds do you have to indicate?

You must always use your direction indicators (signalling device) to tell other road users what you intend to do. They cannot know your intentions unless you tell them by giving early and adequate signals. It’s also important to remember that giving a signal does not mean that other road users must give way to you or that you can automatically change direction without taking care and giving way.

  • In every case, you must give sufficient warning of your intention to alter direction to allow other drivers, motorcycle riders, bicycle riders and pedestrians to act on your signal.
  • In the case of leaving a stationary position at the side of the road, you must signal for at least five seconds to allow sufficient warning to be given to other road users, especially bicycle riders.

You must signal your intention with your direction indicators to:

move to the left or rightturn left or right. This includes leaving the continuing road at a modified T-intersection when you intend to go straight ahead ( Example 8 and 9 )change from one lane to another or divergingpull into or out from a kerb or side of the roadmake a U-turn or 3-point turnleave a roundabout (if practicable)Turn left or right when driving within a car park. This includes turning left or right to move into a car park space.

Cars are fitted with brake lights to indicate that you are slowing down or stopping, and direction indicators (blinking lights on each side of the car) that you MUST use to give a change of direction signal or make a turn. You must stop giving the change of direction signal as soon as you complete the change of direction. You must signal your intention, by means of your vehicle’s brake lights to:

stop your vehicle orsuddenly slow your vehicle.

If a vehicle’s direction indicators or brake lights are not in working order, or the vehicle is not fitted with indicators or brake lights, you must give a hand signal to turn right, stop or slow down suddenly (as illustrated). Bicycle riders are only required to give a hand signal when turning or diverging to the right, except when making a hook turn. see here

What is the minimum amount of required sleep you should have before taking a long drive?

How do I avoid fatigue? –

Get enough quality sleep before you begin driving. Be sure to have seven to eight hours of uninterrupted sleep before your trip.The worst time to begin your trip is after work – you will be tired already, even if you do not realise it.Aim not to travel more than eight to ten hours each day.Take regular 15 minute breaks at least every two hours. Get out of the car, get some fresh air and some exercise.If possible share the driving. Get your passengers to tell you if you look tired or if you are showing signs of tiredness.Eat well balanced meals at your usual meal times. Avoid fatty foods, which can make you feel drowsy.Avoid alcohol and medicines that can cause drowsiness.Avoid driving at night. The chances of crashing are much higher late night and early morning.