- 1 What are the 5 golden rules of food safety?
- 2 What are the 4 C’s of food safety?
- 3 What are the 7c of food safety?
- 4 What is the 2 2 4 rule food safety?
- 5 What is the number 1 golden rule?
What are the 5 golden rules of food safety?
The core messages of the Five Keys to Safer Food are: (1) keep clean; (2) separate raw and cooked; (3) cook thoroughly; (4) keep food at safe temperatures; and (5) use safe water and raw materials.
WHO guidelines on food safety?
Overview – The core messages of the Five Keys to Safer Food are:
keep clean;separate raw and cooked;cook thoroughly;keep food at safe temperatures; anduse safe water and raw materials.
The poster has been translated into more than 87 languages and is being used to spread WHO’s food hygiene message throughout the world. Other available languages:
Arabic Chinese Italian Japanese Persian Portuguese
What are the 4 C’s of food safety?
The 4Cs of food hygiene Cleaning. Cooking. Chilling. Cross-contamination.
What is the 5 food rule?
Posted on April 22, 2022 by 672 Dropping food on the floor is a common occurrence for all of us. If you’ve got kids, it’s one that probably happens several times every day. And when that food hits the floor, someone will undoubtedly evoke the “5-second rule,” picking it up and eating or serving it anyway.
The belief behind this so-called “rule” is that it takes more than five seconds for potentially harmful bacteria on the floor to attach to and contaminate your food. Those contaminants could include bacteria that cause any type of foodborne illness, But is the 5-second rule based on scientific fact? “I do believe in the 5-second rule,” says Sana R.
Zuberi, M.D., a family medicine physician at Henry Ford Health. “I think it’s worth it to not keep throwing food away.” However, Dr. Zuberi does acknowledge that some scenarios call for more caution than others. “The odds of contamination are lower the less time food spends on the floor,” she says.
Who is on the HACCP food safety team?
GUIDELINES FOR APPLICATION OF HACCP PRINCIPLES – Introduction HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product.
- For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept.
- A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food.
- HACCP is designed for use in all segments of the food industry from growing, harvesting, processing, manufacturing, distributing, and merchandising to preparing food for consumption.
Prerequisite programs such as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. Food safety systems based on the HACCP principles have been successfully applied in food processing plants, retail food stores, and food service operations.
The seven principles of HACCP have been universally accepted by government agencies, trade associations and the food industry around the world. The following guidelines will facilitate the development and implementation of effective HACCP plans. While the specific application of HACCP to manufacturing facilities is emphasized here, these guidelines should be applied as appropriate to each segment of the food industry under consideration.
Prerequisite Programs The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs. Examples of common prerequisite programs are listed in Appendix A, Each segment of the food industry must provide the conditions necessary to protect food while it is under their control.
This has traditionally been accomplished through the application of cGMPs. These conditions and practices are now considered to be prerequisite to the development and implementation of effective HACCP plans. Prerequisite programs provide the basic environmental and operating conditions that are necessary for the production of safe, wholesome food.
Many of the conditions and practices are specified in federal, state and local regulations and guidelines (e.g., cGMPs and Food Code). The Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene describe the basic conditions and practices expected for foods intended for international trade.
- In addition to the requirements specified in regulations, industry often adopts policies and procedures that are specific to their operations.
- Many of these are proprietary.
- While prerequisite programs may impact upon the safety of a food, they also are concerned with ensuring that foods are wholesome and suitable for consumption ( Appendix A ).
HACCP plans are narrower in scope, being limited to ensuring food is safe to consume. The existence and effectiveness of prerequisite programs should be assessed during the design and implementation of each HACCP plan. All prerequisite programs should be documented and regularly audited.
Prerequisite programs are established and managed separately from the HACCP plan. Certain aspects, however, of a prerequisite program may be incorporated into a HACCP plan. For example, many establishments have preventive maintenance procedures for processing equipment to avoid unexpected equipment failure and loss of production.
During the development of a HACCP plan, the HACCP team may decide that the routine maintenance and calibration of an oven should be included in the plan as an activity of verification. This would further ensure that all the food in the oven is cooked to the minimum internal temperature that is necessary for food safety.
Education and Training The success of a HACCP system depends on educating and training management and employees in the importance of their role in producing safe foods. This should also include information the control of foodborne hazards related to all stages of the food chain. It is important to recognize that employees must first understand what HACCP is and then learn the skills necessary to make it function properly.
Specific training activities should include working instructions and procedures that outline the tasks of employees monitoring each CCP. Management must provide adequate time for thorough education and training. Personnel must be given the materials and equipment necessary to perform these tasks.
Effective training is an important prerequisite to successful implementation of a HACCP plan. Developing a HACCP Plan The format of HACCP plans will vary. In many cases the plans will be product and process specific. However, some plans may use a unit operations approach. Generic HACCP plans can serve as useful guides in the development of process and product HACCP plans; however, it is essential that the unique conditions within each facility be considered during the development of all components of the HACCP plan.
In the development of a HACCP plan, five preliminary tasks need to be accomplished before the application of the HACCP principles to a specific product and process. The five preliminary tasks are given in Figure 1. Figure 1. Preliminary Tasks in the Development of the HACCP Plan Assemble the HACCP Team The first task in developing a HACCP plan is to assemble a HACCP team consisting of individuals who have specific knowledge and expertise appropriate to the product and process. It is the team’s responsibility to develop the HACCP plan.
- The team should be multi disciplinary and include individuals from areas such as engineering, production, sanitation, quality assurance, and food microbiology.
- The team should also include local personnel who are involved in the operation as they are more familiar with the variability and limitations of the operation.
In addition, this fosters a sense of ownership among those who must implement the plan. The HACCP team may need assistance from outside experts who are knowledgeable in the potential biological, chemical and/or physical hazards associated with the product and the process.
However, a plan which is developed totally by outside sources may be erroneous, incomplete, and lacking in support at the local level. Due to the technical nature of the information required for hazard analysis, it is recommended that experts who are knowledgeable in the food process should either participate in or verify the completeness of the hazard analysis and the HACCP plan.
Such individuals should have the knowledge and experience to correctly: (a) conduct a hazard analysis; (b) identify potential hazards; (c) identify hazards which must be controlled; (d) recommend controls, critical limits, and procedures for monitoring and verification; (e) recommend appropriate corrective actions when a deviation occurs; (f) recommend research related to the HACCP plan if important information is not known; and (g) validate the HACCP plan.
Describe the food and its distribution The HACCP team first describes the food. This consists of a general description of the food, ingredients, and processing methods. The method of distribution should be described along with information on whether the food is to be distributed frozen, refrigerated, or at ambient temperature.
Describe the intended use and consumers of the food Describe the normal expected use of the food. The intended consumers may be the general public or a particular segment of the population (e.g., infants, immunocompromised individuals, the elderly, etc.).
- Develop a flow diagram which describes the process The purpose of a flow diagram is to provide a clear, simple outline of the steps involved in the process.
- The scope of the flow diagram must cover all the steps in the process which are directly under the control of the establishment.
- In addition, the flow diagram can include steps in the food chain which are before and after the processing that occurs in the establishment.
The flow diagram need not be as complex as engineering drawings. A block type flow diagram is sufficiently descriptive (see Appendix B ). Also, a simple schematic of the facility is often useful in understanding and evaluating product and process flow.
Verify the flow diagram The HACCP team should perform an on-site review of the operation to verify the accuracy and completeness of the flow diagram. Modifications should be made to the flow diagram as necessary and documented. After these five preliminary tasks have been completed, the seven principles of HACCP are applied.
Conduct a hazard analysis (Principle 1) After addressing the preliminary tasks discussed above, the HACCP team conducts a hazard analysis and identifies appropriate control measures. The purpose of the hazard analysis is to develop a list of hazards which are of such significance that they are reasonably likely to cause injury or illness if not effectively controlled.
- Hazards that are not reasonably likely to occur would not require further consideration within a HACCP plan.
- It is important to consider in the hazard analysis the ingredients and raw materials, each step in the process, product storage and distribution, and final preparation and use by the consumer.
When conducting a hazard analysis, safety concerns must be differentiated from quality concerns. A hazard is defined as a biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control. Thus, the word hazard as used in this document is limited to safety.
A thorough hazard analysis is the key to preparing an effective HACCP plan. If the hazard analysis is not done correctly and the hazards warranting control within the HACCP system are not identified, the plan will not be effective regardless of how well it is followed. The hazard analysis and identification of associated control measures accomplish three objectives: Those hazards and associated control measures are identified.
The analysis may identify needed modifications to a process or product so that product safety is further assured or improved. The analysis provides a basis for determining CCPs in Principle 2. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages.
The first, hazard identification, can be regarded as a brain storming session. During this stage, the HACCP team reviews the ingredients used in the product, the activities conducted at each step in the process and the equipment used, the final product and its method of storage and distribution, and the intended use and consumers of the product.
Based on this review, the team develops a list of potential biological, chemical or physical hazards which may be introduced, increased, or controlled at each step in the production process. Appendix C lists examples of questions that may be helpful to consider when identifying potential hazards.
- Hazard identification focuses on developing a list of potential hazards associated with each process step under direct control of the food operation.
- A knowledge of any adverse health-related events historically associated with the product will be of value in this exercise.
- After the list of potential hazards is assembled, stage two, the hazard evaluation, is conducted.
In stage two of the hazard analysis, the HACCP team decides which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. During this stage, each potential hazard is evaluated based on the severity of the potential hazard and its likely occurrence. Severity is the seriousness of the consequences of exposure to the hazard.
- Considerations of severity (e.g., impact of sequelae, and magnitude and duration of illness or injury) can be helpful in understanding the public health impact of the hazard.
- Consideration of the likely occurrence is usually based upon a combination of experience, epidemiological data, and information in the technical literature.
When conducting the hazard evaluation, it is helpful to consider the likelihood of exposure and severity of the potential consequences if the hazard is not properly controlled. In addition, consideration should be given to the effects of short term as well as long term exposure to the potential hazard.
- Such considerations do not include common dietary choices which lie outside of HACCP.
- During the evaluation of each potential hazard, the food, its method of preparation, transportation, storage and persons likely to consume the product should be considered to determine how each of these factors may influence the likely occurrence and severity of the hazard being controlled.
The team must consider the influence of likely procedures for food preparation and storage and whether the intended consumers are susceptible to a potential hazard. However, there may be differences of opinion, even among experts, as to the likely occurrence and severity of a hazard.
The HACCP team may have to rely upon the opinion of experts who assist in the development of the HACCP plan. Hazards identified in one operation or facility may not be significant in another operation producing the same or a similar product. For example, due to differences in equipment and/or an effective maintenance program, the probability of metal contamination may be significant in one facility but not in another.
A summary of the HACCP team deliberations and the rationale developed during the hazard analysis should be kept for future reference. This information will be useful during future reviews and updates of the hazard analysis and the HACCP plan. Appendix D gives three examples of using a logic sequence in conducting a hazard analysis.
- While these examples relate to biological hazards, chemical and physical hazards are equally important to consider.
- Appendix D is for illustration purposes to further explain the stages of hazard analysis for identifying hazards.
- Hazard identification and evaluation as outlined in Appendix D may eventually be assisted by biological risk assessments as they become available.
While the process and output of a risk assessment (NACMCF, 1997) (1) is significantly different from a hazard analysis, the identification of hazards of concern and the hazard evaluation may be facilitated by information from risk assessments. Thus, as risk assessments addressing specific hazards or control factors become available, the HACCP team should take these into consideration.
Upon completion of the hazard analysis, the hazards associated with each step in the production of the food should be listed along with any measure(s) that are used to control the hazard(s). The term control measure is used because not all hazards can be prevented, but virtually all can be controlled.
More than one control measure may be required for a specific hazard. On the other hand, more than one hazard may be addressed by a specific control measure (e.g. pasteurization of milk). For example, if a HACCP team were to conduct a hazard analysis for the production of frozen cooked beef patties ( Appendices B and D), enteric pathogens (e.g., Salmonella and verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli ) in the raw meat would be identified as hazards.
|Step||Potential Hazard(s)||Justification||Hazard to be addressed in plan? Y/N||Control Measure(s)|
|5. Cooking||Enteric pathogens: e.g., Salmonella, verotoxigenic- E. coli||enteric pathogens have been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness from undercooked ground beef||Y||Cooking|
The hazard analysis summary could be presented in several different ways. One format is a table such as the one given above. Another could be a narrative summary of the HACCP team’s hazard analysis considerations and a summary table listing only the hazards and associated control measures.
- Determine critical control points (CCPs) (Principle 2) A critical control point is defined as a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
- The potential hazards that are reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of their control must be addressed in determining CCPs.
Complete and accurate identification of CCPs is fundamental to controlling food safety hazards. The information developed during the hazard analysis is essential for the HACCP team in identifying which steps in the process are CCPs. One strategy to facilitate the identification of each CCP is the use of a CCP decision tree (Examples of decision trees are given in Appendices E and F ).
- Although application of the CCP decision tree can be useful in determining if a particular step is a CCP for a previously identified hazard, it is merely a tool and not a mandatory element of HACCP.
- A CCP decision tree is not a substitute for expert knowledge.
- Critical control points are located at any step where hazards can be either prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels.
Examples of CCPs may include: thermal processing, chilling, testing ingredients for chemical residues, product formulation control, and testing product for metal contaminants. CCPs must be carefully developed and documented. In addition, they must be used only for purposes of product safety.
- For example, a specified heat process, at a given time and temperature designed to destroy a specific microbiological pathogen, could be a CCP.
- Likewise, refrigeration of a precooked food to prevent hazardous microorganisms from multiplying, or the adjustment of a food to a pH necessary to prevent toxin formation could also be CCPs.
Different facilities preparing similar food items can differ in the hazards identified and the steps which are CCPs. This can be due to differences in each facility’s layout, equipment, selection of ingredients, processes employed, etc. Establish critical limits (Principle 3) A critical limit is a maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical or physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of a food safety hazard.
- A critical limit is used to distinguish between safe and unsafe operating conditions at a CCP.
- Critical limits should not be confused with operational limits which are established for reasons other than food safety.
- Each CCP will have one or more control measures to assure that the identified hazards are prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.
Each control measure has one or more associated critical limits. Critical limits may be based upon factors such as: temperature, time, physical dimensions, humidity, moisture level, water activity (a w ), pH, titratable acidity, salt concentration, available chlorine, viscosity, preservatives, or sensory information such as aroma and visual appearance.
- Critical limits must be scientifically based.
- For each CCP, there is at least one criterion for food safety that is to be met.
- An example of a criterion is a specific lethality of a cooking process such as a 5D reduction in Salmonella,
- The critical limits and criteria for food safety may be derived from sources such as regulatory standards and guidelines, literature surveys, experimental results, and experts.
An example is the cooking of beef patties ( Appendix B ). The process should be designed to ensure the production of a safe product. The hazard analysis for cooked meat patties identified enteric pathogens (e.g., verotoxigenic E. coli such as E. coli O157:H7, and salmonellae) as significant biological hazards.
Furthermore, cooking is the step in the process at which control can be applied to reduce the enteric pathogens to an acceptable level. To ensure that an acceptable level is consistently achieved, accurate information is needed on the probable number of the pathogens in the raw patties, their heat resistance, the factors that influence the heating of the patties, and the area of the patty which heats the slowest.
Collectively, this information forms the scientific basis for the critical limits that are established. Some of the factors that may affect the thermal destruction of enteric pathogens are listed in the following table. In this example, the HACCP team concluded that a thermal process equivalent to 155° F for 16 seconds would be necessary to assure the safety of this product.
To ensure that this time and temperature are attained, the HACCP team for one facility determined that it would be necessary to establish critical limits for the oven temperature and humidity, belt speed (time in oven), patty thickness and composition (e.g., all beef, beef and other ingredients). Control of these factors enables the facility to produce a wide variety of cooked patties, all of which will be processed to a minimum internal temperature of 155° F for 16 seconds.
In another facility, the HACCP team may conclude that the best approach is to use the internal patty temperature of 155° F and hold for 16 seconds as critical limits. In this second facility the internal temperature and hold time of the patties are monitored at a frequency to ensure that the critical limits are constantly met as they exit the oven.
|Process Step||CCP||Critical Limits|
|5. Cooking||YES||Oven temperature:_° F Time; rate of heating and cooling (belt speed in ft/min): _ft/min Patty thickness: _in. Patty composition: e.g. all beef Oven humidity: _% RH|
Establish monitoring procedures (Principle 4) Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification. Monitoring serves three main purposes.
First, monitoring is essential to food safety management in that it facilitates tracking of the operation. If monitoring indicates that there is a trend towards loss of control, then action can be taken to bring the process back into control before a deviation from a critical limit occurs. Second, monitoring is used to determine when there is loss of control and a deviation occurs at a CCP, i.e., exceeding or not meeting a critical limit.
When a deviation occurs, an appropriate corrective action must be taken. Third, it provides written documentation for use in verification. An unsafe food may result if a process is not properly controlled and a deviation occurs. Because of the potentially serious consequences of a critical limit deviation, monitoring procedures must be effective.
Ideally, monitoring should be continuous, which is possible with many types of physical and chemical methods. For example, the temperature and time for the scheduled thermal process of low-acid canned foods is recorded continuously on temperature recording charts. If the temperature falls below the scheduled temperature or the time is insufficient, as recorded on the chart, the product from the retort is retained and the disposition determined as in Principle 5.
Likewise, pH measurement may be performed continually in fluids or by testing each batch before processing. There are many ways to monitor critical limits on a continuous or batch basis and record the data on charts. Continuous monitoring is always preferred when feasible.
Monitoring equipment must be carefully calibrated for accuracy. Assignment of the responsibility for monitoring is an important consideration for each CCP. Specific assignments will depend on the number of CCPs and control measures and the complexity of monitoring. Personnel who monitor CCPs are often associated with production (e.g., line supervisors, selected line workers and maintenance personnel) and, as required, quality control personnel.
Those individuals must be trained in the monitoring technique for which they are responsible, fully understand the purpose and importance of monitoring, be unbiased in monitoring and reporting, and accurately report the results of monitoring. In addition, employees should be trained in procedures to follow when there is a trend towards loss of control so that adjustments can be made in a timely manner to assure that the process remains under control.
- The person responsible for monitoring must also immediately report a process or product that does not meet critical limits.
- All records and documents associated with CCP monitoring should be dated and signed or initialed by the person doing the monitoring.
- When it is not possible to monitor a CCP on a continuous basis, it is necessary to establish a monitoring frequency and procedure that will be reliable enough to indicate that the CCP is under control.
Statistically designed data collection or sampling systems lend themselves to this purpose. Most monitoring procedures need to be rapid because they relate to on-line, “real-time” processes and there will not be time for lengthy analytical testing. Examples of monitoring activities include: visual observations and measurement of temperature, time, pH, and moisture level.
- Microbiological tests are seldom effective for monitoring due to their time-consuming nature and problems with assuring detection of contaminants.
- Physical and chemical measurements are often preferred because they are rapid and usually more effective for assuring control of microbiological hazards.
- For example, the safety of pasteurized milk is based upon measurements of time and temperature of heating rather than testing the heated milk to assure the absence of surviving pathogens.
With certain foods, processes, ingredients, or imports, there may be no alternative to microbiological testing. However, it is important to recognize that a sampling protocol that is adequate to reliably detect low levels of pathogens is seldom possible because of the large number of samples needed.
- This sampling limitation could result in a false sense of security by those who use an inadequate sampling protocol.
- In addition, there are technical limitations in many laboratory procedures for detecting and quantitating pathogens and/or their toxins.
- Establish corrective actions (Principle 5) The HACCP system for food safety management is designed to identify health hazards and to establish strategies to prevent, eliminate, or reduce their occurrence.
However, ideal circumstances do not always prevail and deviations from established processes may occur. An important purpose of corrective actions is to prevent foods which may be hazardous from reaching consumers. Where there is a deviation from established critical limits, corrective actions are necessary.
- Therefore, corrective actions should include the following elements: (a) determine and correct the cause of non-compliance; (b) determine the disposition of non-compliant product and (c) record the corrective actions that have been taken.
- Specific corrective actions should be developed in advance for each CCP and included in the HACCP plan.
As a minimum, the HACCP plan should specify what is done when a deviation occurs, who is responsible for implementing the corrective actions, and that a record will be developed and maintained of the actions taken. Individuals who have a thorough understanding of the process, product and HACCP plan should be assigned the responsibility for oversight of corrective actions.
- As appropriate, experts may be consulted to review the information available and to assist in determining disposition of non-compliant product.
- Establish verification procedures (Principle 6) Verification is defined as those activities, other than monitoring, that determine the validity of the HACCP plan and that the system is operating according to the plan.
The NAS (1985) (2) pointed out that the major infusion of science in a HACCP system centers on proper identification of the hazards, critical control points, critical limits, and instituting proper verification procedures. These processes should take place during the development and implementation of the HACCP plans and maintenance of the HACCP system.
- An example of a verification schedule is given in Figure 2,
- One aspect of verification is evaluating whether the facility’s HACCP system is functioning according to the HACCP plan.
- An effective HACCP system requires little end-product testing, since sufficient validated safeguards are built in early in the process.
Therefore, rather than relying on end-product testing, firms should rely on frequent reviews of their HACCP plan, verification that the HACCP plan is being correctly followed, and review of CCP monitoring and corrective action records. Another important aspect of verification is the initial validation of the HACCP plan to determine that the plan is scientifically and technically sound, that all hazards have been identified and that if the HACCP plan is properly implemented these hazards will be effectively controlled.
- Information needed to validate the HACCP plan often include (1) expert advice and scientific studies and (2) in-plant observations, measurements, and evaluations.
- For example, validation of the cooking process for beef patties should include the scientific justification of the heating times and temperatures needed to obtain an appropriate destruction of pathogenic microorganisms (i.e., enteric pathogens) and studies to confirm that the conditions of cooking will deliver the required time and temperature to each beef patty.
Subsequent validations are performed and documented by a HACCP team or an independent expert as needed. For example, validations are conducted when there is an unexplained system failure; a significant product, process or packaging change occurs; or new hazards are recognized.
In addition, a periodic comprehensive verification of the HACCP system should be conducted by an unbiased, independent authority. Such authorities can be internal or external to the food operation. This should include a technical evaluation of the hazard analysis and each element of the HACCP plan as well as on-site review of all flow diagrams and appropriate records from operation of the plan.
A comprehensive verification is independent of other verification procedures and must be performed to ensure that the HACCP plan is resulting in the control of the hazards. If the results of the comprehensive verification identifies deficiencies, the HACCP team modifies the HACCP plan as necessary.
- Verification activities are carried out by individuals within a company, third party experts, and regulatory agencies.
- It is important that individuals doing verification have appropriate technical expertise to perform this function.
- The role of regulatory and industry in HACCP was further described by the NACMCF (1994) (3),
Examples of verification activities are included as Appendix G, Figure 2. Example of a Company Established HACCP Verification Schedule
|Verification Activities Scheduling||Yearly or Upon HACCP System Change||HACCP Coordinator||Plant Manager|
|Initial Validation of HACCP Plan||Prior to and During Initial Implementation of Plan||Independent Expert(s) (a)||HACCP Team|
|Subsequent validation of HACCP Plan||When Critical Limits Changed, Significant Changes in Process, Equipment Changed, After System Failure, etc.||Independent Expert(s) (a)||HACCP Team|
|Verification of CCP Monitoring as Described in the Plan (e.g., monitoring of patty cooking temperature)||According to HACCP Plan (e.g., once per shift)||According to HACCP Plan (e.g., Line Supervisor)||According to HACCP Plan (e.g., Quality Control)|
|Review of Monitoring, Corrective Action Records to Show Compliance with the Plan||Monthly||Quality Assurance||HACCP Team|
|Comprehensive HACCP System Verification||Yearly||Independent Expert(s) (a)||Plant Manager|
|(a) Done by others than the team writing and implementing the plan. May require additional technical expertise as well as laboratory and plant test studies.|
Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures (Principle 7) Generally, the records maintained for the HACCP System should include the following:
- A summary of the hazard analysis, including the rationale for determining hazards and control measures.
- The HACCP Plan Listing of the HACCP team and assigned responsibilities. Description of the food, its distribution, intended use, and consumer. Verified flow diagram. HACCP Plan Summary Table that includes information for: Steps in the process that are CCPs The hazard(s) of concern. Critical limits Monitoring* Corrective actions* Verification procedures and schedule* Record-keeping procedures* * A brief summary of position responsible for performing the activity and the procedures and frequency should be provided The following is an example of a HACCP plan summary table:
CCP Hazards Critical limit(s) Monitoring Corrective Actions Verification Records
- Support documentation such as validation records.
- Records that are generated during the operation of the plan.
Examples of HACCP records are given in Appendix H,
What does HACCP stand for?
What does HACCP stand for? – The acronym HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. A hazard refers to any agent with the potential of causing harm to consumers. There are three main types of food safety hazards:
- Microbiological (e.g. bacteria and viruses)
- Chemical (e.g. cleaning products)
- Physical (e.g. objects like glass or hair)
Another potential hazard could be an allergen, for instance, as it can cause an immune-system reaction from susceptible people, and consequently cause harm. Critical control points are the points in a process ” at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent, control, or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level ” (as defined by Codex 2009a).
What are the 7c of food safety?
There is a 7 Cs ( Check, Clean, Cover, Cross contamination avoided, Cook, Cool, Consume ) formula representing good food hygiene/ management practice. It is important to maintain food hygiene by following the seven Cs.
Can food be reheated twice?
How to keep food safe to eat, even when reheating – To limit the growth of bacteria, potentially hazardous foods should be kept outside of the temperature danger zone as much as possible. This means keeping cold foods cold (less than 5°C) and hot foods hot (above 60°C).
It also means after cooking, potentially hazardous foods should be cooled to less than 5°C as quickly as possible. This also applies to reheated foods you want to save for later. When cooling foods, Food Standards Australia New Zealand the temperature should fall from 60°C to 21°C in less than two hours and be reduced to 5°C or colder in the next four hours.
In practice, this means transferring hot foods to shallow containers to cool to room temperature, and then transferring the covered containers to the fridge to continue cooling. It’s not a good idea to put hot foods straight into the fridge. This can cause the fridge temperature to increase above 5°C which may affect the safety of other foods inside. If food has been hygienically prepared, cooled quickly, and stored cold, reheating more than once should not increase the risk of illness, Photo by on When it comes to safely reheating (and re-reheating) foods, there are a few things to consider:
Always practice good hygiene when preparing foods After cooking, cool foods on the bench either in small portions or in shallow containers (increased surface area reduces cooling time) and put in the fridge within two hours. Food should be cold (less than 5°C) within the next four hours Try to reheat only the portion you intend to immediately consume and make sure it is piping hot throughout (or invest in a thermometer to ensure the internal temperature reaches 75°C) If you don’t consume reheated food immediately, avoid handling it and return it to the fridge within two hours Err on the side of caution if reheating food for vulnerable people including children, elderly, pregnant or immunocompromised people. If in doubt, throw it out.
With the ever-increasing cost of food, buying in bulk, preparing meals in large quantities and storing unused portions is convenient and practical. Following a few simple common sense rules will keep stored food safe and minimise food waste. This was originally published on The Conversation. : Yes, you can reheat food more than once. Here’s why
What is the danger zone for food?
The “Danger Zone” (40 °F-140 °F) – Bacteria grow most rapidly in the range of temperatures between 40 ° and 140 °F, doubling in number in as little as 20 minutes. This range of temperatures is often called the “Danger Zone.” That’s why the Meat and Poultry Hotline advises consumers to never leave food out of refrigeration over 2 hours.
What is the 80 20 rule in cooking?
The 80/20 rule is a guide for your everyday diet— eat nutritious foods 80 percent of the time and have a serving of your favorite treat with the other 20 percent. For the ’80 percent’ part of the plan, focus on drinking lots of water and eating nutritious foods that include: Whole grains.
What is the big five in food handlers?
The Big 5 foodborne illnesses – In addition to reporting symptoms, you must notify your manager if you have been diagnosed with one of the “Big 5” infections. The “Big 5” are five of the most common pathogens that are easily transmitted through food and cause severe foodborne illness.
What is the 2 2 4 rule food safety?
If the total time is: Less than 2 hours, the food can be used or put back in the refrigerator for later use, Between 2 and 4 hours, the food can still be used, but can’t be put back in the refrigerator, and 4 hours or longer, the food must be thrown out.
What is the 4 and 2 rule food?
How it works. Food held between 5°C and 60°C for less than 2 hours can be used, sold or put back in the refrigerator to use later. Food held between 5°C and 60°C for 2-4 hours can still be used or sold, but can’t be put back in the fridge. Food held between 5°C and 60°C for 4 hours or more must be thrown away.
What is the 2 2 2 rule food?
Not sure those leftovers are safe to eat? Non-profit organisation Love Food, Hate Waste recommends the 2:2:2 rule. Two hours to get them in the fridge. Two days to eat them once they’re in there. Or freeze them for up to two months. A really simple rule that everyone in the house can understand. No need to waste leftovers.
What is the number 1 golden rule?
Golden Rule, precept in the Gospel of Matthew (7:12): “In everything, do to others what you would have them do to you.,” This rule of conduct is a summary of the Christian’s duty to his neighbour and states a fundamental ethical principle. In its negative form, “Do not do to others what you would not like done to yourselves,” it occurs in the 2nd-century documents Didachē and the Apology of Aristides and may well have formed part of an early catechism.
It recalls the command to “love the stranger (sojourner)” as found in Deuteronomy. It is not, however, peculiar to Christianity. Its negative form is to be found in Tob.4:15, in the writings of the two great Jewish scholars Hillel (1st century bc ) and Philo of Alexandria (1st centuries bc and ad ), and in the Analects of Confucius (6th and 5th centuries bc ).
It also appears in one form or another in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Isocrates, and Seneca.
What is the golden rule of GMP?
The golden rule of five – The five main components of GMP for the food industry – the golden rules for its implementation – could be summed up as a rigorous focus on ‘The five Ps’ of food production and manufacturing: People; Premises (which also addresses equipment); Processes; Products/Primary materials; and Procedures (or, alternatively: Paperwork).
- These elements still form the fundamental basis of GMP that makes the global food industry safer and securer.
- But might they have to change with the times? “In the short-term future, say, one to three years, the foodservice consumer is going to remain laser-focused on standards.
- Standards in terms of hygiene, process and quality,” says Mark Dempsey, Global Consulting Director at data analytics and consulting firm GlobalData.
“These consumer demands will act to sort the weak from the strong in terms of food producers and operators where only those that deliver against increasingly stringent expectations will win and grow.” Consumers, says Dempsey, will expect “clear statements” from food companies as to how they are striving to continuously improve safety and quality in a post-Covid world.