Why Do Safety Numbers Change On Signal
So when and why do safety numbers change? – To understand the issue better, BleepingComputer reached out to Signal, specifically asking under what circumstances do the safety numbers change, and when do they not. Signal has told BleepingComputer that there have been no changes made to the source code that concern safety numbers.

  1. Signal’s VP of Engineering, Jim O’Leary further states that any updates made recently were part of normal maintenance updates, and explains why safety numbers may not change in all circumstances.
  2. By design, SNs don’t change when doing a signal device transfer or when making a linked device change, because the key material doesn’t change.

we explained this several times and even added to our support article/FAQ. no behavior here has changed (2/2) — jimio (@jimio) June 5, 2021 The subsequent responses to researchers’ reports by Signal provide us a better understanding of how Signal safety numbers work, when do they change, and when not.

Signal’s CEO, Moxie Marlinspike stepped in on Twitter to shed light on the circumstances when the safety numbers not change: “You tried (and reported) installing on a new device using Signal device transfer, and you tried cycling a linked device.” “These do not result in SN change notifications, because the underlying key material has not changed, so there is nothing to warn,” explained Marlinspike.

By “key material,” Marlinspike is referring to what forms the basis of safety numbers and how they are generated, as explained in his 2016 and 2017 blog posts. Furthermore, in the same Twitter conversation, Marlinspike adds that the researchers’ report covers a case of Signal device transfer, followed by the cycling of linked devices.

However, when uninstalling or reinstalling Signal on an unlinked device, the Safety Numbers are supposed to change, and that “this is how it always worked and was supposed to work.” Had Signal sneakily patched any issues described in the report, being open-source, their GitHub commit history would reveal the changes: And if Signal “sneakily patched” things (to work the way they were designed to and always have), where is the commit? It’s OSS, should be easy enough to point out the line where this changed.

— Moxie Marlinspike (@moxie) June 5, 2021 The original purpose of safety numbers is to allow users to verify the security of their messages and calls with specific contacts. “Each Signal one-to-one chat has a unique safety number that allows you to verify the security of your messages and calls with specific contacts.” “Verification of safety numbers is a good security practice for sensitive communication.

  • If a safety number has been marked as verified, any change must be manually approved before sending a new message.” “This allows users to check the privacy of their communication with a contact and helps protect against any attempted man-in-the-middle attacks,” reads Signal’s support docs,
  • Therefore, if the Safety Number between you and your contact changes and both of you get alerted, it is a good idea to verify that you are communicating with the intended person.

But, as Signal explains it, not all cases of app re-installation or migration may lead to a safety number change, and that is no cause for concern.

Why did Signal safety number change?

The most common scenarios where a safety number advisory is displayed are when a contact switches to a new phone or re-installs Signal, but these actions don’t always result in a safety number change. However, if a safety number changes frequently or unexpectedly it may be a sign that something is wrong.

What do safety numbers mean?

It is a secret number that you share with the person you’re communicating with. The other person *probably* got a new phone. If possible you should meet up in person to verify the new number, or reach out through some other means than via signal.

How do I find my Signal safety number?

What Is Signal? – Signal is an end-to-end encrypted messaging app, which is a complicated way of saying that only the device sending the message and the device receiving it can see the content of messages. If the cops want access to your chats, messages, or files, they’ll need to your device because Signal has no record of them.

We’ve designed the Signal service to minimize the data we retain about Signal users, so the only information we can produce in response to a request.is the date and time a user registered with Signal and the last date of a user’s connectivity to the Signal service,” the app maker in 2016. This can be helpful for people who work with sensitive content, like journalists, organizers, or those living under repressive regimes.

But it’s a double-edged sword, as this level of secrecy on Signal and similar apps can also to bad actors. Signal had approximately 20 million active users in December 2020,, That has since exploded in the wake of a privacy policy snafu with rival app WhatsApp, though Signal declined to release exact numbers, according to,

WhatsApp topped 2 billion monthly active users in 2020, Statista says. Function-wise, Signal is similar to WhatsApp, minus the complicating factor of being owned by Facebook. Signal is run by the nonprofit Signal Technology Foundation, an organization from Open Whisper Systems founder Moxie Marlinspike and WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton that looks for ways to develop open-source privacy software.

(Acton left Facebook in 2017 and has been of the social network.) If you’re intrigued by Signal, it’s free and works on iOS and Android devices, as well as computers, whether they’re Mac, Windows, or Linux. We have some tips to get you started. Advertisement You can make both voice and video calls on Signal. One-on-One Calls For mobile, select the pencil icon and then choose a contact or enter a phone number. On a desktop, enter the number into search or just select a contact. Select the phone icon for a voice call or the video camera icon for a video call. To ensure you have secure communication with a contact, you can verify with them either in person or through messages. To do this, open a conversation in Signal, tap the other person’s name up top, and select View Safety Number, This will bring up a QR code and strings of numbers.

If you are physically with the other person, hover your phone over theirs and select Scan Code at the bottom of the screen. But what if your safety number changes after getting a new phone or re-installing Signal? Don’t worry, Signal inside a message. When a message comes in from a user you’ve communicated with but who has a new safety message, you’ll see a notification within the message screen (though you can still proceed with the conversation).

Tap the message that says Safety number changed. Tap to verify, Then you can either accept the new safety number in a pop-up right there or click Accept New Safety Number and be led through the manual process again. Read receipts are a blessing and a curse. If you want them for Signal, go to Settings > Privacy > Read Receipts and toggle it to on. The feature requires mutual trust, though; both users need to enable it to see the other’s receipts. Since Signal is secure, clearing your history isn’t a necessity, but if you like the neatness of no messages, want a clean start, or are worried about your phone in someone else’s hands, go to Settings > Privacy > Clear History > Delete Everything. Signal warns that the disappearing messages feature “is not for situations where your contact is your adversary—after all, if someone who receives a disappearing message really wants a record of it, they can always use another camera to take a photo of the screen before the message disappears.” That said, if you do want to utilize them, on Android devices, go to a chat and tap on the timer icon. If you’re using Signal on a computer, there are lots of keyboard shortcuts, all shown on this, It’s made for Mac users but for Windows or Linux, just substitute Control for Command. Signal is a serious platform, but not too serious since it embraces things like stickers. When you go to message a contact, tap the sticky note symbol on the chat box, where you can access sticker packs like, GIFs are a tap away in Signal. In a chat, tap the plus sign next to the message box and then the GIF button to search Giphy for the, If you get a call from someone who’s not in your contacts, you’ll first see their profile picture and get a text message request to approve or block them. You can move your Signal account from one iOS device to another easily if you have both devices on you and Signal is already installed on one. On the new device, download Signal and start registration. Once you verify your phone number, you’ll get a prompt on the old device asking you whether you want to transfer your account.

Once you confirm you’ll get a QR code on the new device. Scan it with the old device and all your info will be moved over. For all the ways it addresses privacy, Signal does not give you a way to mask your phone number, oddly. There is no simple solution, but there are things you can do. As the The Intercept, you can register using a number from a service such as Google Voice or Skype and tie that number to a dedicated device.

That second part is easy for Android users because you can set up a second account on your phone. On iPhone, you’ll have to either use another iOS device (like an iPad or an iPod touch) or Android device, but that gadget does not need a cellular connection or SIM card.

On the additional device or from the alternate account, install Signal, open it, and type in the phone number you wish to use. You will get a message that authentication failed. Choose voice verification by tapping Call Me. The number you entered will ring and you will hear a voice that will give you a six-digit number.

Type that number into the verification box in the Signal app and then select Verify. This is a messy process, but if keeping your private number private is important to you, it could be worth it. There are lots of reasons why you wouldn’t want to show faces in a photo, and last year showed that one of them is because it enables law enforcement to make arrests based on images from,

  1. When you go to send an image, displayed at the top.
  2. Tap the circle on the left and you’ll be able to smudge out faces or other things from the photo, though this is far from a foolproof method of obscuring an identity.
  3. Not ready to give up WhatsApp? for the Facebook-owned chat app.
  4. Sign up for SecurityWatch newsletter for our top privacy and security stories delivered right to your inbox.
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This newsletter may contain advertising, deals, or affiliate links. Subscribing to a newsletter indicates your consent to our and, You may unsubscribe from the newsletters at any time. : 12 Signal App Tips for Secure Chats

How do you get verified on Signal?

Signal, the secure messaging app, makes it easy to chat without sacrificing security. Signal gives you encrypted messages, as well as voice and video calls. It relies on data, so it’s a great option for free calls and texts over Wi-Fi. This can be a huge advantage for those of us who don’t want to pay for SMS text messages and phone calls, or who want to make free international calls.

It’s not only convenient, but security experts recommend Signal for a few different reasons. Signal is end-to-end encrypted, meaning that no one but your device and conversational partner’s device can read the messages you send. The team behind the software is a privacy-centered nonprofit funded by grants and donations,

Perhaps most importantly, Signal is open source, meaning that the code is publicly viewable. It can be examined for potential security holes, and has stood up to auditing, All of these features make Signal one of the best options for boosting your communication security.

  • First, find Signal for iPhone or Android here, or search for it in the App Store or Google Play store.
  • It only works with other Signal users, so get your friends to use it, too.
  • When you first launch the app, it will ask you to verify your phone number.
  • IPhone users: Type in your number and hit “Activate This Device.” You’ll receive a 6-digit code via SMS text message.

Type in the code and hit “Submit Verification Code.” Android users: Type in your phone number, hit “Register” and wait for the app to verify your phone number. Press the messaging icon (with the pencil). From here, you can securely message your contacts who have installed the app.

How secure is Signal really?

Is the Signal app secure? – Communications on Signal are end-to-end encrypted, which means only the people in messages can see the content of those messages — not even the company itself. Even sticker packs get their own special encryption, Signal created the encryption protocol (basically, the technical way you implement this) that other companies including WhatsApp and Skype use.

Is Signal no longer secure?

FAQ – Who owns the Signal app? The Signal Foundation owns the Signal app. Signal creator Moxie Marlinspike and WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton founded it and its subsidiary, Signal Messenger LLC in 2018. Signal Messenger LLC is responsible for the development of the app and its encryption protocol, the Signal protocol.

Check out the What’s Signal and Who are the People Behind It? section in this article for a more thorough discussion about the foundation. Is Signal the same as Signal Advance, Inc.? They’re different. Signal is a private and secure messaging app owned by the Signal Foundation. On the other hand, Signal Advance, Inc.

sells signal detection and processing systems for medical and industrial applications. If you want to compare the Signal app against other messaging apps, please check out the Signal Different Vs. Other Messaging Apps section above. What is the Signal Foundation? It is an organization founded in 2018 by privacy advocates Signal creator Moxie Marlinspike and WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton.

  1. It aims to develop an “open source privacy technology that protects free expression and enables secure global communication.” Meredith Whittaker joined the foundation in September 2022 as president.
  2. Whittaker said in an October 2022 interview with The Verge that its structure allows it to function as a nonprofit and not prioritize profit and growth over its core mission.

Learn more about the foundation and the people behind it in this article’s What’s Signal and Who are the People Behind It? section. Is Signal safe to use? Yes. Signal’s open-source nature, end-to-end encryption, and commitment to never collecting user data make it one of the safest messaging apps around.

How can you tell if someone is on Signal on Iphone?

Download Article Download Article This wikiHow teaches you how to check if a contact has an activated Signal account that they’re using on their mobile device, using Android.

  1. 1 Open the Signal app on your Android device. The Signal icon looks like a white speech balloon in a blue box. Signal will open up to a list of your recent chats.
    • If Signal opens up to a chat conversation in full-screen, tap the back button to go back to your chats list.
  2. 2 Tap the blue pencil icon. This button is in the lower-right corner of the chats list. It will bring up your contacts list. Advertisement
  3. 3 Find your contact’s name on the list. You can scroll down on your screen to see the rest of the list, or use the search function at the top to quickly find a contact by their name or number.
  4. 4 Check the color of the letter next to your contact’s name. You will see your contact’s first name initial letter next to their full name and number. If the letter is written in blue color, this means your contact has an activated Signal account and they’re using Signal. If it’s gray, your contact does not have Signal on their device.
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Add New Question

Question Can people I don’t know contact me on signal? Pearlone Community Answer Yes, if they have your telephone number. (NB. Sometimes, scammers may randomly generate your telephone number and use that to see that you have Signal and send you messages.)

Ask a Question 200 characters left Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Submit Advertisement Thanks for submitting a tip for review! Article Summary X 1. Open the Signal app.2. Tap the blue pencil icon.3. Find your contact’s name.4.

Does Signal use my phone number?

Requirements. Signal installed on your Android phone or iOS device. Signal uses your existing phone number. The number must be able to receive an insecure SMS or phone call.

What is safety of numbers risk?

Existence of the safety-in-numbers effect in the aspect of injury severity: A macroscopic analysis for bicyclists and pedestrians , December 2022, Pages 302-309 In recent decades, a number of transportation and public health researchers have agreed that walking and cycling should be promoted owing to their advantages of economic and environmental sustainability and benefits to public health (Mueller et al., 2018).

  • However, more than half of all the road traffic deaths reported involve vulnerable road users, such as pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists (World Health Organization, 2021), which presents a barrier to the shift from motorized transportation to sustainable modes of transportation.
  • To encourage car users to choose walking or cycling as their primary mode of transportation, several efforts have been dedicated to explore and improve the safety of vulnerable road users.

A phenomenon called safety-in-numbers was discovered while studying the safety of vulnerable road users (Brüde & Larsson, 1993). The safety-in-numbers effect refers to the hypothesis that an individual in a larger group is more likely to be protected from mishaps or accidents.

In other words, when the number of bicyclists/pedestrians increases, the risk of crash involvement for each bicyclist/pedestrian decreases. Over the past two decades, the safety-in-numbers concept has attracted significant research interest. Some researchers have investigated the relationship between crashes involving bicyclists/pedestrians and the number of bicyclists/pedestrians, and the results have indicated that the safety-in-numbers effect exists on a microscopic scale, including intersections (Kröyer, 2016, Miranda-Moreno et al., 2011, Murphy et al., 2017, Schneider et al., 2010, Xie et al., 2018, Xu et al., 2019), crosswalks (Elvik, 2016), and roundabouts (Daniels, Brijs, Nuyts, & Wets, 2010).

In contrast, other studies have investigated the safety-in-numbers effect on a macroscopic scale, including states (Robinson, 2005), census tracts (Tasic, Elvik, & Brewer, 2017), and metropolitan statistical areas (Lee, Abdel-Aty, & Cai, 2020). Jacobsen (2015) examined the safety-in-numbers effect and proved its existence across different macro levels ranging from cities to countries.

In addition to exploring the existence of the safety-in-numbers effect on a microscopic or macroscopic scale, a few studies have analyzed more specific circumstances. Agent-based modeling was applied to replicate the safety-in-numbers effect in a simulated environment, and the results implied that the safety-in-numbers effect exists only when bicycle density increases over time (Thompson, Savino, & Stevenson, 2015).

Lee, Abdel-Aty, Xu, and Gong (2019) explored the safety-in-numbers effect in areas with low pedestrian activities at intersections. The results indicate that the safety-in-numbers effect exists at intersections with larger pedestrian activities, whereas it does not exist at intersections with minimal pedestrian activities.

  1. Although the above-mentioned studies have identified the existence of the safety-in-numbers effect, the reported strength of the effect varies significantly between studies.
  2. Elvik (2017) reviewed existing studies analyzing the safety-in-numbers effect using count regression models and revealed that the strength of the safety-in-numbers effect is inversely related to the number of cyclists and pedestrians.

Another meta-analysis conducted by Elvik and Bjørnskau (2019) suggested that the strength of the safety-in-numbers effect is more likely to be larger for pedestrians than for cyclists and higher at the macro level than at the micro level. Mechanisms underlying the safety-in-numbers effect have also been investigated in recent years.

Some possible mechanisms that have been proposed include the behavioral adaptation of drivers (Jacobsen, 2015), improved interaction between road user groups (Phillips, Bjørnskau, Hagman, & Sagberg, 2011), and safer street regulations, design, and operation (Bhatia & Wier, 2011). These mechanisms have been tested in several studies.

The improved interaction between road user groups, which refers to other road users creating more correct expectations when they become accustomed to the presence of bicyclists, was verified by analyzing data from Oslo, Norway, where bicycle use exhibits a substantial seasonal variation (Fyhri, Sundfør, Bjørnskau, & Laureshyn, 2017).

Two studies that used simulated environments demonstrated that behavioral adaptation may be a sufficient but unnecessary input and that the safety-in-numbers effect still exists even in the absence of behavioral adaptation (Thompson et al., 2015, Thompson et al., 2016). One mechanism involves the following hypothesis: more attention will be paid to cyclists if more drivers are also cyclists (cyclist drivers), which occurs when the number of cyclists increases.

To test this mechanism, Johnson, Oxley, Newstead, and Charlton (2014) conducted an online survey among Australian drivers who did not cycle and cyclist drivers and discovered that cyclist drivers tended to report positive attitudes towards cyclists. Based on the previous discussions, it can be established that considerable effort has been devoted to explore the safety-in-numbers effect.

However, previous studies have analyzed the safety-in-numbers effect with regard to the crash frequency or crash rate. An analysis of the effect with regard to injury severity among bicyclists and pedestrians has not yet been investigated. The existence of this effect would indicate that with an increasing proportion of bicyclists/pedestrians, the proportion of more severe injuries would decrease, whereas that of less severe injuries would increase.

The primary objective of the current study is, therefore, to evaluate the existence of the safety-in-numbers effect from the perspective of traffic injury severity among vulnerable road users. To accomplish this, the current study adopts two fractional split multinomial logit models to analyze the proportion of crashes based on their severity with data collected from Florida aggregated at the county level.

Descriptive statistics of the data for bicyclists and pedestrians are summarized in Table 1, Table 2, respectively. These data were collected from 67 counties in Florida, USA. Four main datasets were integrated and used in the current study: bicycle and pedestrian crash data, Strava data, Florida socioeconomic and demographic data, and land-use data.

The data used in this study are described in detail in this section. Preliminary analyses were conducted to investigate the existence of the safety-in-numbers effect in the aspect of crash frequency. The relationship between bicycle/pedestrian volume and bicycle/pedestrian crash frequency was analyzed using the following general negative binomial regression model: N u m b e r o f b i c y c l e ( p e d e s t r i a n ) c r a s h e s = exp β 0 Veh β 1 Bic ( P e d ) β 2 Here, Veh, Bic, and Ped represent the annual average volumes of the motor vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians, respectively.

  • Β 0 denotes the The fractional split model was first proposed by Papke (1996) to analyze fractional bivariate dependent variables that range between zero and one.
  • The multinomial version, the fractional multinomial split model, was further developed and has been applied in the field of transportation, including the evaluation of crash proportion based on severity levels (Yasmin, Eluru, Lee, & Abdel-Aty, 2016), crash proportion based on vehicle type (Lee, Yasmin, Eluru, Abdel-Aty, & Cai, 2018), and the Table 4, Table 5 present the parameter estimation results of the fractional split multinomial logit models for bicyclists and pedestrians, respectively.

In the fractional split multinomial logit model, each alternative has a propensity equation, and the model estimation requires one of the alternatives as a reference. In the current study, the model was estimated using the proportion of minor/no injuries as the reference.

  1. Thus, no coefficients are specific to the proportion of minor/no injuries It should be noted that Strava data cannot capture all bicyclist/pedestrian trips because not all bicyclists/pedestrians use the Strava application.
  2. A previous study discovered that Strava data are skewed towards young male cyclists (Hochmair, Bardin, & Ahmouda, 2019).

Therefore, several other explanatory variables were introduced to complement the incomplete Strava bicyclist/pedestrian trip data. At first glance, some readers may assume that the results of the current study are counterintuitive Walking and cycling are essential towards the development of sustainable transportation; however, crashes are obstacles to the promotion of this active mode of transportation.

  • To promote walking and cycling among people, this study focused on exploring the existence of the safety-in-numbers effect in the aspect of injury severity among bicyclists and pedestrians.
  • Two fractional split multinomial logit models were used at the macro level.
  • The modeling results confirmed the presence of the The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

This research was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (No.2020YFB1600400) and the Innovation-Driven Project of Central South University (No.2020CX013). Ms. Yanqi Lian is a Ph.D. student at the School of Traffic & Transportation Engineering of the Central South University.

U. Brüde et al. A.P. Afghari et al. R. Bhatia et al. S. Daniels et al. J. De Oña et al. R. Elvik R. Elvik R. Elvik et al. R. Elvik et al. A. Fyhri et al.

H.H. Hochmair et al. P.L. Jacobsen P.L. Jacobsen et al. M. Johnson et al. H.R.G. Kröyer J. Lee et al. J. Lee et al.

Introduction: Vehicle headlights are the primary means of providing visibility illumination for drivers at night, when crash rates are several times higher than during the day. Based on research indicating a wide range of headlight performance in the passenger vehicle fleet and the absence of a comprehensive and objective consumer evaluation program, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began testing and rating headlight systems in 2015. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between headlight visibility, as quantified by IIHS, and real-world crash occurrence. Methods: Poisson regression was used to estimate the effects of the headlight rating and the underlying demerits on the rate of police-reported nighttime single-vehicle crashes per vehicle mile traveled. Results: Results indicate that vehicles with better headlight visibility have lower nighttime crash rates after controlling for differences in daytime rates and other factors. A reduction of 10 visibility demerits, the equivalent of one overall rating band, was estimated to reduce the nighttime crash rate by 4.6% (95% CI: 2.1%–7.0%). While statistical significance was limited by small sample sizes, good-rated headlights were estimated to reduce crash rates by 12 to 29% relative to those with poor ratings for the different types of single-vehicle crashes studied. Among different components of the IIHS rating, the assessments of low and high beam curve visibility were associated with the greatest crash rate reductions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the IIHS evaluation program encourages headlight designs that reduce the risk of nighttime single-vehicle crashes. Practical applications: Headlight systems have a meaningful effect on nighttime crash rates. Drivers can reduce their crash risk by selecting a vehicle with one of the best designs. Introduction: An important issue affecting the safety of riders is running a red light. Many factors can affect this risky behavior including demographic, safety, and meteorological factors. Method: Using two models, the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examines this behavior. In this study, 853 participants completed an online questionnaire. Results: The results indicated that older people and those who were married ran the red light less frequently compared with other riders. Additionally, people who rode motorcycles for more hours in a day had greater intentions and willingness to run the red light. People who had prior risky experiences while riding in the past reported running red lights more frequently. When comparing the two models, the PWM predicted a greater level of variance in the red-light running behavior when compared with the TPB. Among the components of the TPB model, the attitude factor was the strongest predictor. Prototype similarity was the strongest predictor of red-light running among the components of the PWM. Finally, it was observed that using a road safety educational (RSE) solution can effectively reduce the rate of red light traffic running among motorcyclists. Introduction: Age-related frailty leaves older drivers with the greatest fatality risk when involved in a crash compared with younger demographics. This study explored how vehicle features differed between crash-involved older and middle-aged drivers and estimated how those differences contribute to excess older driver fatalities. Methods: We merged Florida’s crash data from 2014–2018 with Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and Highway Loss Data Institute databases. We compared the distribution of passenger vehicle age, type, size, and safety features among crash-involved older drivers (ages 70 and older) with crash-involved middle-aged drivers (ages 35–54). From logistic regression models, we estimated declines in older driver fatalities if they drove vehicles like those driven by middle-aged drivers under all and side-impact crash scenarios. Results: Older drivers in crashes were more likely to be in vehicles that were lighter, older, and without standard electronic stability control, standard head-protecting side airbags, and ratings of good in two IIHS crash tests than middle-aged drivers. In adjusted models, the fatality risk for older drivers in all crashes was significantly higher when ESC was not standard (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–1.68) or when driving small passenger cars relative to large SUVs (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.25–3.26); in driver-side crashes, the fatality risk doubled when vehicles did not have standard head-protecting side airbags (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.58–2.62). If older drivers drove vehicles similar to middle-aged drivers, we estimated 3.3% and 4.7% fewer deaths in all and side-impact crashes, respectively. Conclusions: These results contribute to evidence suggesting that newer, more crashworthy vehicles with crash mitigation features benefit older drivers because of their heightened risk of crash-related fatality. Practical Applications: At a minimum, older drivers should aim to drive equipped vehicles with widely available features proven to reduce fatalities. Safety-in-numbers denotes the tendency for the risk of accident for each road user to decline as the number of road users increases. Safety-in-numbers implies that a doubling of the number of road users will be associated with less than a doubling of the number of accidents. This paper investigates safety-in-numbers in 239 pedestrian crossings in Oslo and its suburbs. Accident prediction models were fitted by means of negative binomial regression. The models indicate a very strong safety-in-numbers effect. In the final model, the coefficients for traffic volume were 0.05 for motor vehicles, 0.07 for pedestrians and 0.12 for cyclists. The coefficient for motor vehicles implies that the number of accidents is almost independent of the number of motor vehicles. The safety-in-numbers effect found in this paper is stronger than reported in any other study dealing with safety-in-numbers. It should be noted that the model explained only 21% of the systematic variation in the number of accidents. It therefore cannot be ruled out that the results are influenced by omitted variable bias. Any such bias would, however, have to be very large to eliminate the safety-in-numbers effect. Introduction: Walking is an active way of moving the population, but in recent years there have been more pedestrian casualties in traffic, especially in developing countries such as Serbia. Macro-level road safety studies enable the identification of influential factors that play an important role in creating pedestrian safety policies. Method: This study analyzes the impact of traffic and infrastructure characteristics on pedestrian accidents at the level of traffic analysis zones. The study applied a geographically weighted regression approach to identify and localize all factors that contribute to the occurrence of pedestrian accidents. Taking into account the spatial correlations between the zones and the frequency distribution of accidents, the geographically Poisson weighted model showed the best predictive performance. Results: This model showed 10 statistically significant factors influencing pedestrian accidents. In addition to exposure measures, a positive relationship with pedestrian accidents was identified in the length of state roads (class I), the length of unclassified streets, as well as the number of bus stops, parking spaces, and object units. However, a negative relationship was recorded with the total length of the street network and the total length of state roads passing through the analyzed area. Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of determining the categorization and function of roads in places where pedestrian flows are pronounced, as well as the perception of pedestrian safety near bus stops and parking spaces. Practical Applications: The results of this study can help traffic safety engineers and managers plan infrastructure measures for future pedestrian safety planning and management in order to reduce pedestrian casualties and increase their physical activity. A pedestrian was estimated to be killed every 85 min and injured every 7 min on US roads in 2019. Targeted safety treatments are particularly required at urban intersections where pedestrians regularly conflict with turning vehicles. Leading Pedestrian Intervals (LPIs) are an innovative, low-cost treatment where the pedestrian and vehicle usage of the potential conflict area (a crosswalk) is staggered in time to give the pedestrians a head start of a few seconds and reduce the “element of surprise” for right-turning vehicles. The effectiveness of LPI treatment on pedestrian safety is mixed, and most importantly, its effect on vehicle-vehicle conflicts is unknown. This study investigates the before-after effects of LPI treatments on vehicle–pedestrian and vehicle-vehicle crash risk by applying traffic conflict techniques. In particular, this study has developed a quantile regression technique within the extreme value model to estimate and compare crash risks before and after the installation of the LPI treatment. The before-after traffic movement video data (504 h in total) were collected from three signalized intersections in the City of Bellevue, Washington. The recorded movements were analyzed using Microsoft’s proprietary computer vision platform, Edge Video Service, and Advanced Mobility Analytics Group’s cloud-based SMART Safety TM platform to automatedly extract traffic conflicts by analyzing road user trajectories. The treatment effect was measured using a Bayesian hierarchical extreme value model with the peak-over threshold approach. For the extreme value model, a Bayesian quantile regression analysis was conducted to estimate the conflict thresholds corresponding to a high (95th) quantile. Odds ratios were estimated for both conflict types using untreated crossing as a control group. Results indicate that the LPI treatment reduces the crash risk of pedestrians as measured by the reduction in extreme vehicle–pedestrian conflicts by about 42%. The LPI treatment has also been found not to negatively affect rear-end conflicts along the approaches leading to the LPI-treated pedestrian crossing at the signalized intersections. The findings of this study further emphasize the effectiveness of video analytics in proactive safety evaluations of engineering treatments.

Ms. Yanqi Lian is a Ph.D. student at the School of Traffic & Transportation Engineering of the Central South University. She received bachelor’s degree of Traffic & Transportation Engineering (Honors) from the Central South University in 2018. Her main research interests include big data analytics and vulnerable road users’ safety.

  • Ms. Enru Zhou is a Master’s student at the School of Traffic & Transportation Engineering of the Central South University.
  • She received bachelor’s degree of Transportation Engineering from the Shanghai University of Engineering Science in 2020.
  • She has been working on research studies related to traffic safter analysis, public health and transportation.

Dr. Jaeyoung Lee is Professor at the School of Traffic & Transportation Engineering of the Central South University. Since the last decade, he has conducted research studies in traffic safety, traffic planning, operation and management of transportation, transportation big data, and intelligent transportation systems.

  1. He has published over 150 academic papers.
  2. He is a member of multiple TRB Standing Committees including Transportation Safety Management (ACS10) and Impairment in Transportation (ACS50).
  3. He is also a Courtesy Professor at the University of Central Florida. Dr.
  4. Mohamed Abdel-Aty, PE is a Trustee Chair at the University of Central Florida (UCF).

He is a Pegasus Professor and the Chair of the Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering Department at UCF. He is leading the Future City initiative at UCF. He is also the director of the Smart and Safe Transportation Lab1, the Winner of the USDOT Solving for Safety Visualization Challenge, Real-time crash risk visualization using integrated tools for traffic safety evaluation and management, November 2019.

His main expertise and interests are in the areas of traffic safety, simulation, big data and data analytics, ITS, and CAV. He is the pioneer and well recognized nationally and internationally in work and research in real-time safety, Proactive traffic management, integrating road safety and transportation planning, Highway Safety Manual, and Connected Vehicles.

: Existence of the safety-in-numbers effect in the aspect of injury severity: A macroscopic analysis for bicyclists and pedestrians

Can Signal be spied on?

Signal is designed to never collect or store any sensitive information. Signal messages and calls cannot be accessed by us or other third parties because they are always end-to-end encrypted, private, and secure.

Can Signal app be traced by police?

Does the signal app really make it impossible for your texts and calls to be monitored by police? No, it does not. If the government wants to see your texts and/or calls they can and will. With a warrant they can see or do anything to help solve a case or prove guilt.

Why is Signal better than WhatsApp?

Verdict – Overall, if security and privacy are your biggest concern, Signal is by far the more secure service. While both services do use end-to-end encryption, Signal takes extra steps to ensure that the metadata information of its users is kept private and does not go out of its way to collect extra data on its users.

  • Since Signal is an independent and non-profit organisation, it is also unlikely that it will ever change its privacy policy, which cannot be said for WhatsApp, which falls under the Meta umbrella.
  • While we wouldn’t necessarily recommend that you immediately stop using WhatsApp, you may want to turn to Signal if you’re looking for the best protection available.

: WhatsApp vs Signal: Which messaging app is better?

Should I use my real name on Signal?

Signal requires only a first name, and it doesn’t need to be your real name. It can be a nickname or even an emoji. A last name and a photo or other avatar are optional.

Can someone find me on Signal?

People who already know your number and already have you in their contacts see that they can contact you on Signal.

Has Signal ever been hacked?

Users of the Signal messaging app got hit by a hacker attack. We analyze what happened and why the attack demonstrates that Signal is reliable. On August 15, the Signal team reported that unknown hackers attacked users of the messenger.

Is Signal safe from FBI?

Singal – The Good:

Messages are encrypted end to end, FBI cannot access them Signal does not store messages or user data outside of registration date and date of last use Signal features screen lock and pin to make accessing messages, even with access to device, slightly more difficult to prevent snooping Has actively worked to make app hostile towards hackers Is a favorite of journalists, whistleblowers, and infamous NSA whisleblower Edward Snowden

The Bad:

FBI can get when you signed up and when you last used the app. Which isn’t nothing, but it’s effectively nothing

Is Signal a cheaters app?

Many people who cheat on their partners use secret messaging apps, like Signal, which allow them to chat with others discreetly. Depending on the cheating your partner is engaging in, whether sexual, emotional, or otherwise, there are different apps they might use to cheat or hide their behavior.

Which country owns Signal?

The Signal Technology Foundation, commonly known as the Signal Foundation, is an American non-profit organization founded in 2018 by Moxie Marlinspike and Brian Acton.

Is there anything more secure than Signal?

Wire vs. Signal: Which Is Best for You? – Signal and Wire are miles better, more secure, and more private than the vast majority of messaging apps out there. Both have certain flaws, but no major security issues. Signal is great for everyday use and, as an individual, you probably won’t find a safer app.

Is Signal safer than Telegram?

Voice and Video – Both apps offer voice and video calls, both individually and in groups. One-to-one calls are end-to-end encrypted in both Signal and Telegram. Signal also uses end-to-end encryption for group chats, but in Telegram, these calls are only encrypted between the device and the server, so they are less secure.

Why is Signal app changing?

Signal Messenger removes SMS support: “No longer makes sense.” The messaging app Signal has decided to discontinue their SMS and MMS features. We explain the reasons, and what users need to know now. WhatsApp competitor Signal has started to remove the SMS and MMS features for Android on their app.

Has Signal ever been compromised?

Private messaging app Signal hit by hack, the secure messaging app, has been hit by a hack that leaked its users phone numbers. The attack means that 1,900 users have been compromised, with their phone numbers and SMS codes exposed. That means that hackers could potentially register those accounts onto a new device.

  • The hack is of particular concern to Signal, given that it is intended as a private messaging app and is regularly recommended for use by people whose messages need to stay especially secure.
  • The attack was not conducted directly on Signal, but rather on Twilio, a separate company that provides services to developers.

Signal uses its services to verify users’ phone numbers when they sign up. Last week, Twilio announced that it had been hacked, with attackers breaching its internal systems and accessing customer data. Signal was one of those customers, and so its users were caught up in the attack.

  1. The hacker appeared to try and look for three accounts, and successfully re-registered one of them.
  2. Signal says that it has now revoked the attackers’ access, that the hack has been shut down by Twilio, and that any affected users will be notified.
  3. Those that may have been caught up in the attack will receive text messages telling them to register their account again, and their accounts will be unregistered on any devices they are using.

The company also advised users to enable the “registration lock” feature that can be found in settings. That is intended to explicitly protect against such attacks – but it must be opted into manually. It said that some of the problem is a result of vulnerability in the telecom system, used to send text messages and phone calls, which is still used to verify phone numbers on Signal.

While we don’t have the ability to directly fix the issues affecting the telecom ecosystem, we will be working with Twilio and potentially other providers to tighten up their security where it matters for our users,” it said in an announcement. The hack did not mean that the attacker got access to message history, profile information or contact lists, Signal advised.

Likewise, message history is stored on specific devices, so that even if an account was re-registered they would have stayed secure. However, an attacker would have been able to send and receive new messages, from someone else’s number, if their details were caught up in the attack.

Has Signal app been compromised?

Users of the Signal messaging app got hit by a hacker attack. We analyze what happened and why the attack demonstrates that Signal is reliable. On August 15, the Signal team reported that unknown hackers attacked users of the messenger.

Does Signal use your actual number?

Signal does not send your phone number to anyone unless you send them a message or make a call to them. Other members of your group chats may see your profile and phone number. The Signal service does not have any knowledge of your contacts. Data is all owned by your phone.